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Rotterdam Convention

Rotterdam Convention

Number of parties: 155

Theme: Chemicals and Waste Management

Abstract: The objectives of the Convention are: To promote shared responsibility and cooperative efforts among Parties in the international trade of certain hazardous chemicals in order to protect human health and the ...more »

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Entry into force: 24-Feb-2004

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    • The Parties to this Convention
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      Chemicals and Pesticides
      Prior Informed Consent (PIC) and Advanced Informed Agreement (AIA)

      • Aware of the harmful impact on human health and the environment from certain hazardous chemicals and pesticides in international trade, Human Health
      • Recalling the pertinent provisions of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development and chapter 19 of Agenda 21 on "Environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals, including prevention of illegal international traffic in toxic and dangerous products", Rio Principles & Concepts
        Illegal Transboundary Movement
      • Mindful of the work undertaken by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in the operation of the voluntary Prior Informed Consent procedure, as set out in the UNEP Amended London Guidelines for the Exchange of Information on Chemicals in International Trade (hereinafter referred to as the "Amended London Guidelines") and the FAO International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides (hereinafter referred to as the "International Code of Conduct"), International Cooperation and Coordination
      • Taking into account the circumstances and particular requirements of developing countries and countries with economies in transition, in particular the need to strengthen national capabilities and capacities for the management of chemicals, including transfer of technology, providing financial and technical assistance and promoting cooperation among the Parties, Financial resources
        Capacity Building
        Technology Transfer
        Technical Assistance
        Compliance and Enforcement
        Developing Countries
        Technology
      • Noting the specific needs of some countries for information on transit movements, Information Exchange and Knowledge Management
      • Recognizing that good management practices for chemicals should be promoted in all countries, taking into account, inter alia, the voluntary standards laid down in the International Code of Conduct and the UNEP Code of Ethics on the International Trade in Chemicals, Standards and Guidelines
        Best Available Technology and Best Practice
      • Desiring to ensure that hazardous chemicals that are exported from their territory are packaged and labelled in a manner that is adequately protective of human health and the environment, consistent with the principles of the Amended London Guidelines and the International Code of Conduct, Handling and Labelling
      • Recognizing that trade and environmental policies should be mutually supportive with a view to achieving sustainable development,
      • Emphasizing that nothing in this Convention shall be interpreted as implying in any way a change in the rights and obligations of a Party under any existing international agreement applying to chemicals in international trade or to environmental protection, Treaty Law
      • Understanding that the above recital is not intended to create a hierarchy between this Convention and other international agreements, Relationship between Instruments
      • Determined to protect human health, including the health of consumers and workers, and the environment against potentially harmful impacts from certain hazardous chemicals and pesticides in international trade, Human Health
      • Have agreed as follows:
    • ARTICLE 1 Objective
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    • ARTICLE 2 Definitions
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      • For the purposes of this Convention:
      • (a) "Chemical" means a substance whether by itself or in a mixture or preparation and whether manufactured or obtained from nature, but does not include any living organism. It consists of the following categories: pesticide (including severely hazardous pesticide formulations) and industrial; Chemicals and Pesticides
      • (b) "Banned chemical" means a chemical all uses of which within one or more categories have been prohibited by final regulatory action, in order to protect human health or the environment. It includes a chemical that has been refused approval for first time use or has been withdrawn by industry either from the domestic market or from further consideration in the domestic approval process and where there is clear evidence that such action has been taken in order to protect human health or the environment;
      • (c) "Severely restricted chemical" means a chemical virtually all use of which within one or more categories has been prohibited by final regulatory action in order to protect human health or the environment, but for which certain specific uses remain allowed. It includes a chemical that has, for virtually all use, been refused for approval or been withdrawn by industry either from the domestic market or from further consideration in the domestic approval process, and where there is clear evidence that such action has been taken in order to protect human health or the environment;
      • (d) "Severely hazardous pesticide formulation" means a chemical formulated for pesticidal use that produces severe health or environmental effects observable within a short period of time after single or multiple exposure, under conditions of use;
      • (e) "Final regulatory action" means an action taken by a Party, that does not require subsequent regulatory action by that Party, the purpose of which is to ban or severely restrict a chemical;
      • (f) "Export" and "import" mean, in their respective connotations, the movement of a chemical from one Party to another Party, but exclude mere transit operations; Import
        Export
      • (g) "Party" means a State or regional economic integration organization that has consented to be bound by this Convention and for which the Convention is in force; Party
      • (h) "Regional economic integration organization" means an organization constituted by sovereign States of a given region to which its member States have transferred competence in respect of matters governed by this Convention and which has been duly authorized, in accordance with its internal procedures, to sign, ratify, accept, approve or accede to this Convention; Regional Economic Integration Organization
      • (i) "Chemical Review Committee" means the subsidiary body referred to in paragraph 6 of Article 18. Subsidiary body
        Chemical Review Committee
    • ARTICLE 3 Scope of the Convention
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    • ARTICLE 4 Designated national authorities
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      Competent Authority

      • 1. Each Party shall designate one or more national authorities that shall be authorized to act on its behalf in the performance of the administrative functions required by this Convention.Each Party shall designate one or more national authorities that shall be authorized to act on its behalf in the performance of the administrative functions required by this Convention. National Focal Points
      • 2. Each Party shall seek to ensure that such authority or authorities have sufficient resources to perform their tasks effectively.
      • 3. Each Party shall, no later than the date of the entry into force of this Convention for it, notify the name and address of such authority or authorities to the Secretariat. It shall forthwith notify the Secretariat of any changes in the name and address of such authority or authorities.
      • 4. The Secretariat shall forthwith inform the Parties of the notifications it receives under paragraph 3.
    • ARTICLE 5 Procedures for banned or severely restricted chemicals
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      • 1. Each Party that has adopted a final regulatory action shall notify the Secretariat in writing of such action. Such notification shall be made as soon as possible, and in any event no later than ninety days after the date on which the final regulatory action has taken effect, and shall contain the information required by Annex I, where available. National Regulation and Legislation
      • 2. Each Party shall, at the date of entry into force of this Convention for it, notify the Secretariat in writing of its final regulatory actions in effect at that time, except that each Party that has submitted notifications of final regulatory actions under the Amended London Guidelines or the International Code of Conduct need not resubmit those notifications.
      • 3. The Secretariat shall, as soon as possible, and in any event no later than six months after receipt of a notification under paragraphs 1 and 2, verify whether the notification contains the information required by Annex I. If the notification contains the information required, the Secretariat shall forthwith forward to all Parties a summary of the information received. If the notification does not contain the information required, it shall inform the notifying Party accordingly. Secretariat
      • 4. The Secretariat shall every six months communicate to the Parties a synopsis of the information received pursuant to paragraphs 1 and 2, including information regarding those notifications which do not contain all the information required by Annex I. Secretariat
      • 5. When the Secretariat has received at least one notification from each of two Prior Informed Consent regions regarding a particular chemical that it has verified meet the requirements of Annex I, it shall forward them to the Chemical Review Committee. The composition of the Prior Informed Consent regions shall be defined in a decision to be adopted by consensus at the first meeting of the Conference of the Parties.
      • 6. The Chemical Review Committee shall review the information provided in such notifications and, in accordance with the criteria set out in Annex II, recommend to the Conference of the Parties whether the chemical in question should be made subject to the Prior Informed Consent procedure and, accordingly, be listed in Annex III. Chemical Review Committee
    • ARTICLE 6 Procedures for severely hazardous pesticide formulations
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      • 1. Any Party that is a developing country or a country with an economy in transition and that is experiencing problems caused by a severely hazardous pesticide formulation under conditions of use in its territory, may propose to the Secretariat the listing of the severely hazardous pesticide formulation in Annex III. In developing a proposal, the Party may draw upon technical expertise from any relevant source. The proposal shall contain the information required by part 1 of Annex IV. Compliance and Enforcement
        Developing Countries
        Technology
      • 2. The Secretariat shall, as soon as possible, and in any event no later than six months after receipt of a proposal under paragraph 1, verify whether the proposal contains the information required by part 1 of Annex IV. If the proposal contains the information required, the Secretariat shall forthwith forward to all Parties a summary of the information received. If the proposal does not contain the information required, it shall inform the proposing Party accordingly.
      • 3. The Secretariat shall collect the additional information set out in part 2 of Annex IV regarding the proposal forwarded under paragraph 2.
      • 4. When the requirements of paragraphs 2 and 3 above have been fulfilled with regard to a particular severely hazardous pesticide formulation, the Secretariat shall forward the proposal and the related information to the Chemical Review Committee.
      • 5. The Chemical Review Committee shall review the information provided in the proposal and the additional information collected and, in accordance with the criteria set out in part 3 of Annex IV, recommend to the Conference of the Parties whether the severely hazardous pesticide formulation in question should be made subject to the Prior Informed Consent procedure and, accordingly, be listed in Annex III. Chemical Review Committee
    • ARTICLE 7 Listing of chemicals in Annex III
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      Listing or Amendments to Annexes

      • 1. For each chemical that the Chemical Review Committee has decided to recommend for listing in Annex III, it shall prepare a draft decision guidance document. The decision guidance document should, at a minimum, be based on the information specified in Annex I, or, as the case may be, Annex IV, and include information on uses of the chemical in a category other than the category for which the final regulatory action applies. Standards and Guidelines
      • 2. The recommendation referred to in paragraph 1 together with the draft decision guidance document shall be forwarded to the Conference of the Parties. The Conference of the Parties shall decide whether the chemical should be made subject to the Prior Informed Consent procedure and, accordingly, list the chemical in Annex III and approve the draft decision guidance document. Conference of the Parties (COP)
      • 3. When a decision to list a chemical in Annex III has been taken and the related decision guidance document has been approved by the Conference of the Parties, the Secretariat shall forthwith communicate this information to all Parties.
    • ARTICLE 8 Chemicals in the voluntary Prior Informed Consent procedure
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      • For any chemical, other than a chemical listed in Annex III, that has been included in the voluntary Prior Informed Consent procedure before the date of the first meeting of the Conference of the Parties, the Conference of the Parties shall decide at that meeting to list the chemical in Annex III, provided that it is satisfied that all the requirements for listing in that Annex have been fulfilled. Prior Informed Consent (PIC) and Advanced Informed Agreement (AIA)
    • ARTICLE 9 Removal of chemicals from Annex III
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      Listing or Amendments to Annexes

      • 1. If a Party submits to the Secretariat information that was not available at the time of the decision to list a chemical in Annex III and that information indicates that its listing may no longer be justified in accordance with the relevant criteria in Annex II or, as the case may be, Annex IV, the Secretariat shall forward the information to the Chemical Review Committee.
      • 2. The Chemical Review Committee shall review the information it receives under paragraph 1. For each chemical that the Chemical Review Committee decides, in accordance with the relevant criteria in Annex II or, as the case may be, Annex IV, to recommend for removal from Annex III, it shall prepare a revised draft decision guidance document.
      • 3. A recommendation referred to in paragraph 2 shall be forwarded to the Conference of the Parties and be accompanied by a revised draft decision guidance document. The Conference of the Parties shall decide whether the chemical should be removed from Annex III and whether to approve the revised draft decision guidance document.
      • 4. When a decision to remove a chemical from Annex III has been taken and the revised decision guidance document has been approved by the Conference of the Parties, the Secretariat shall forthwith communicate this information to all Parties.
    • ARTICLE 10 Obligations in relation to imports of chemicals listed in Annex III
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      Prior Informed Consent (PIC) and Advanced Informed Agreement (AIA)
      Import

      • 1. Each Party shall implement appropriate legislative or administrative measures to ensure timely decisions with respect to the import of chemicals listed in Annex III.
      • 2. Each Party shall transmit to the Secretariat, as soon as possible, and in any event no later than nine months after the date of dispatch of the decision guidance document referred to in paragraph 3 of Article 7, a response concerning the future import of the chemical concerned. If a Party modifies this response, it shall forthwith submit the revised response to the Secretariat.
      • 3. The Secretariat shall, at the expiration of the time period in paragraph 2, forthwith address to a Party that has not provided such a response, a written request to do so. Should the Party be unable to provide a response, the Secretariat shall, where appropriate, help it to provide a response within the time period specified in the last sentence of paragraph 2 of Article 11.
      • 4. A response under paragraph 2 shall consist of either:
      • (a.) A final decision, pursuant to legislative or administrative measures:
      • (i) To consent to import;
      • (ii) Not to consent to import; or
      • (iii) To consent to import only subject to specified conditions; or
      • (b) An interim response, which may include:
      • (i) An interim decision consenting to import with or without specified conditions, or not consenting to import during the interim period;
      • (ii) A statement that a final decision is under active consideration;
      • (iii) A request to the Secretariat, or to the Party that notified the final regulatory action, for further information;
      • (iv) A request to the Secretariat for assistance in evaluating the chemical.
      • 5. A response under subparagraphs (a) or (b) of paragraph 4 shall relate to the category or categories specified for the chemical in Annex III.
      • 6. A final decision should be accompanied by a description of any legislative or administrative measures upon which it is based.
      • 7. Each Party shall, no later than the date of entry into force of this Convention for it, transmit to the Secretariat responses with respect to each chemical listed in Annex III. A Party that has provided such responses under the Amended London Guidelines or the International Code of Conduct need not resubmit those responses.
      • 8. Each Party shall make its responses under this Article available to those concerned within its jurisdiction, in accordance with its legislative or administrative measures.
      • 9. A Party that, pursuant to paragraphs 2 and 4 above and paragraph 2 of Article 11, takes a decision not to consent to import of a chemical or to consent to its import only under specified conditions shall, if it has not already done so, simultaneously prohibit or make subject to the same conditions:
      • (a) Import of the chemical from any source; and Non-detriment finding
      • (b) Domestic production of the chemical for domestic use.
      • 10. Every six months the Secretariat shall inform all Parties of the responses it has received. Such information shall include a description of the legislative or administrative measures on which the decisions have been based, where available. The Secretariat shall, in addition, inform the Parties of any cases of failure to transmit a response.
    • ARTICLE 11 Obligations in relation to exports of chemicals listed in Annex III
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      Export

      • 1. Each exporting Party shall:
      • (a) Implement appropriate legislative or administrative measures to communicate the responses forwarded by the Secretariat in accordance with paragraph 10 of Article 10 to those concerned within its jurisdiction; National Regulation and Legislation
      • (b) Take appropriate legislative or administrative measures to ensure that exporters within its jurisdiction comply with decisions in each response no later than six months after the date on which the Secretariat first informs the Parties of such response in accordance with paragraph 10 of Article 10; National Regulation and Legislation
      • (c) Advise and assist importing Parties, upon request and as appropriate:
      • (i) To obtain further information to help them to take action in accordance with paragraph 4 of Article 10 and paragraph 2 (c) below; and
      • (ii) To strengthen their capacities and capabilities to manage chemicals safely during their life-cycle.
      • 2. Each Party shall ensure that a chemical listed in Annex III is not exported from its territory to any importing Party that, in exceptional circumstances, has failed to transmit a response or has transmitted an interim response that does not contain an interim decision, unless:
      • (a) It is a chemical that, at the time of import, is registered as a chemical in the importing Party; or Exemptions
      • (b) It is a chemical for which evidence exists that it has previously been used in, or imported into, the importing Party and in relation to which no regulatory action to prohibit its use has been taken; or Exemptions
      • (c) Explicit consent to the import has been sought and received by the exporter through a designated national authority of the importing Party. The importing Party shall respond to such a request within sixty days and shall promptly notify the Secretariat of its decision. Exemptions
      • The obligations of exporting Parties under this paragraph shall apply with effect from the expiration of a period of six months from the date on which the Secretariat first informs the Parties, in accordance with paragraph 10 of Article 10, that a Party has failed to transmit a response or has transmitted an interim response that does not contain an interim decision, and shall apply for one year.
    • ARTICLE 12 Export notification
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      • 1. Where a chemical that is banned or severely restricted by a Party is exported from its territory, that Party shall provide an export notification to the importing Party. The export notification shall include the information set out in Annex V. Permits and Certificates
      • 2. The export notification shall be provided for that chemical prior to the first export following adoption of the corresponding final regulatory action. Thereafter, the export notification shall be provided before the first export in any calendar year. The requirement to notify before export may be waived by the designated national authority of the importing Party.
      • 3. An exporting Party shall provide an updated export notification after it has adopted a final regulatory action that results in a major change concerning the ban or severe restriction of that chemical.
      • 4. The importing Party shall acknowledge receipt of the first export notification received after the adoption of the final regulatory action. If the exporting Party does not receive the acknowledgement within thirty days of the dispatch of the export notification, it shall submit a second notification. The exporting Party shall make reasonable efforts to ensure that the importing Party receives the second notification.
      • 5. The obligations of a Party set out in paragraph 1 shall cease when:
      • (a) The chemical has been listed in Annex III;
      • (b) The importing Party has provided a response for the chemical to the Secretariat in accordance with paragraph 2 of Article 10; and
      • (c) The Secretariat has distributed the response to the Parties in accordance with paragraph 10 of Article 10.
    • ARTICLE 13 Information to accompany exported chemicals
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      Permits and Certificates

      • 1. The Conference of the Parties shall encourage the World Customs Organization to assign specific Harmonized System customs codes to the individual chemicals or groups of chemicals listed in Annex III, as appropriate. Each Party shall require that, whenever a code has been assigned to such a chemical, the shipping document for that chemical bears the code when exported. International Cooperation and Coordination
      • 2. Without prejudice to any requirements of the importing Party, each Party shall require that both chemicals listed in Annex III and chemicals banned or severely restricted in its territory are, when exported, subject to labelling requirements that ensure adequate availability of information with regard to risks and/or hazards to human health or the environment, taking into account relevant international standards. Handling and Labelling
      • 3. Without prejudice to any requirements of the importing Party, each Party may require that chemicals subject to environmental or health labelling requirements in its territory are, when exported, subject to labelling requirements that ensure adequate availability of information with regard to risks and/or hazards to human health or the environment, taking into account relevant international standards. Access to Information
      • 4. With respect to the chemicals referred to in paragraph 2 that are to be used for occupational purposes, each exporting Party shall require that a safety data sheet that follows an internationally recognized format, setting out the most up-to-date information available, is sent to each importer. Standards and Guidelines
      • 5. The information on the label and on the safety data sheet should, as far as practicable, be given in one or more of the official languages of the importing Party.
    • ARTICLE 14 Information exchange
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      Information Exchange and Knowledge Management

      • 1. Each Party shall, as appropriate and in accordance with the objective of this Convention, facilitate:
      • (a) The exchange of scientific, technical, economic and legal information concerning the chemicals within the scope of this Convention, including toxicological, ecotoxicological and safety information;
      • (b) The provision of publicly available information on domestic regulatory actions relevant to the objectives of this Convention; and
      • (c) The provision of information to other Parties, directly or through the Secretariat, on domestic regulatory actions that substantially restrict one or more uses of the chemical, as appropriate.
      • 2. Parties that exchange information pursuant to this Convention shall protect any confidential information as mutually agreed.
      • 3. The following information shall not be regarded as confidential for the purposes of this Convention: Access to Information
      • (a) The information referred to in Annexes I and IV, submitted pursuant to Articles 5 and 6 respectively;
      • (b) The information contained in the safety data sheet referred to in paragraph 4 of Article 13;
      • (c) The expiry date of the chemical;
      • (d) Information on precautionary measures, including hazard classification, the nature of the risk and the relevant safety advice; and
      • (e) The summary results of the toxicological and ecotoxicological tests.
      • 4. The production date of the chemical shall generally not be considered confidential for the purposes of this Convention.
      • 5. Any Party requiring information on transit movements through its territory of chemicals listed in Annex III may report its need to the Secretariat, which shall inform all Parties accordingly.
    • ARTICLE 15 Implementation of the Convention
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      Implementation

      • 1. Each Party shall take such measures as may be necessary to establish and strengthen its national infrastructures and institutions for the effective implementation of this Convention. These measures may include, as required, the adoption or amendment of national legislative or administrative measures and may also include:
      • (a) The establishment of national registers and databases including safety information for chemicals; Information Exchange and Knowledge Management
      • (b) The encouragement of initiatives by industry to promote chemical safety; and Private Sector and Commerce
      • (c) The promotion of voluntary agreements, taking into consideration the provisions of Article 16. Private Sector and Commerce
      • 2. Each Party shall ensure, to the extent practicable, that the public has appropriate access to information on chemical handling and accident management and on alternatives that are safer for human health or the environment than the chemicals listed in Annex III. Access to Information
      • 3. The Parties agree to cooperate, directly or, where appropriate, through competent international organizations, in the implementation of this Convention at the subregional, regional and global levels. International Cooperation and Coordination
      • 4. Nothing in this Convention shall be interpreted as restricting the right of the Parties to take action that is more stringently protective of human health and the environment than that called for in this Convention, provided that such action is consistent with the provisions of this Convention and is in accordance with international law. further protective measures
    • ARTICLE 16 Technical assistance
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      Technical Assistance

      • The Parties shall, taking into account in particular the needs of developing countries and countries with economies in transition, cooperate in promoting technical assistance for the development of the infrastructure and the capacity necessary to manage chemicals to enable implementation of this Convention. Parties with more advanced programmes for regulating chemicals should provide technical assistance, including training, to other Parties in developing their infrastructure and capacity to manage chemicals throughout their life-cycle.
    • ARTICLE 17 Non-Compliance
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      Compliance and Enforcement

      • The Conference of the Parties shall, as soon as practicable, develop and approve procedures and institutional mechanisms for determining non-compliance with the provisions of this Convention and for treatment of Parties found to be in non-compliance.
    • ARTICLE 18 Conference of the Parties
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      Conference of the Parties (COP)

      • 1. A Conference of the Parties is hereby established.
      • 2. The first meeting of the Conference of the Parties shall be convened by the Executive Director of UNEP and the Director-General of FAO, acting jointly, no later than one year after the entry into force of this Convention. Thereafter, ordinary meetings of the Conference of the Parties shall be held at regular intervals to be determined by the Conference.
      • 3. Extraordinary meetings of the Conference of the Parties shall be held at such other times as may be deemed necessary by the Conference, or at the written request of any Party provided that it is supported by at least one third of the Parties. Extraordinary Conference of the Parties
      • 4. The Conference of the Parties shall by consensus agree upon and adopt at its first meeting rules of procedure and financial rules for itself and any subsidiary bodies, as well as financial provisions governing the functioning of the Secretariat. Rules of Procedure
      • 5. The Conference of the Parties shall keep under continuous review and evaluation the implementation of this Convention. It shall perform the functions assigned to it by the Convention and, to this end, shall: Implementation
        Review
      • (a) Establish, further to the requirements of paragraph 6 below, such subsidiary bodies as it considers necessary for the implementation of the Convention; Subsidiary body
      • (b) Cooperate, where appropriate, with competent international organizations and intergovernmental and non-governmental bodies; and International Cooperation and Coordination
      • (c) Consider and undertake any additional action that may be required for the achievement of the objectives of the Convention.
      • 6. The Conference of the Parties shall, at its first meeting, establish a subsidiary body, to be called the Chemical Review Committee, for the purposes of performing the functions assigned to that Committee by this Convention. In this regard: Subsidiary body
        Chemical Review Committee
      • (a) The members of the Chemical Review Committee shall be appointed by the Conference of the Parties. Membership of the Committee shall consist of a limited number of government-designated experts in chemicals management. The members of the Committee shall be appointed on the basis of equitable geographical distribution, including ensuring a balance between developed and developing Parties;
      • (b) The Conference of the Parties shall decide on the terms of reference, organization and operation of the Committee;
      • (c) The Committee shall make every effort to make its recommendations by consensus. If all efforts at consensus have been exhausted, and no consensus reached, such recommendation shall as a last resort be adopted by a two-thirds majority vote of the members present and voting.
      • 7. The United Nations, its specialized agencies and the International Atomic Energy Agency, as well as any State not Party to this Convention, may be represented at meetings of the Conference of the Parties as observers. Any body or agency, whether national or international, governmental or non governmental, qualified in matters covered by the Convention, and which has informed the Secretariat of its wish to be represented at a meeting of the Conference of the Parties as an observer may be admitted unless at least one third of the Parties present object. The admission and participation of observers shall be subject to the rules of procedure adopted by the Conference of the Parties. Non-Governmental Organisation(s)
        Observers (Requests for Observer Status)
    • ARTICLE 19 Secretariat
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      Secretariat

      • 1. A Secretariat is hereby established.
      • 2. The functions of the Secretariat shall be:
      • (a) To make arrangements for meetings of the Conference of the Parties and its subsidiary bodies and to provide them with services as required;
      • (b) To facilitate assistance to the Parties, particularly developing Parties and Parties with economies in transition, on request, in the implementation of this Convention;
      • (c) To ensure the necessary coordination with the secretariats of other relevant international bodies;
      • (d) To enter, under the overall guidance of the Conference of the Parties, into such administrative and contractual arrangements as may be required for the effective discharge of its functions; and
      • (e) To perform the other secretariat functions specified in this Convention and such other functions as may be determined by the Conference of the Parties.
      • 3. The secretariat functions for this Convention shall be performed jointly by the Executive Director of UNEP and the Director-General of FAO, subject to such arrangements as shall be agreed between them and approved by the Conference of the Parties.
      • 4. The Conference of the Parties may decide, by a three-fourths majority of the Parties present and voting, to entrust the secretariat functions to one or more other competent international organizations, should it find that the Secretariat is not functioning as intended.
    • ARTICLE 20 Settlement of disputes
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      Settlement of Disputes

      • 1. Parties shall settle any dispute between them concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention through negotiation or other peaceful means of their own choice.
      • 2. When ratifying, accepting, approving or acceding to this Convention, or at any time thereafter, a Party that is not a regional economic integration organization may declare in a written instrument submitted to the Depositary that, with respect to any dispute concerning the interpretation or application of the Convention, it recognizes one or both of the following means of dispute settlement as compulsory in relation to any Party accepting the same obligation:
      • (a) Arbitration in accordance with procedures to be adopted by the Conference of the Parties in an annex as soon as practicable; and
      • (b) Submission of the dispute to the International Court of Justice.
      • 3. A Party that is a regional economic integration organization may make a declaration with like effect in relation to arbitration in accordance with the procedure referred to in paragraph 2 (a).
      • 4. A declaration made pursuant to paragraph 2 shall remain in force until it expires in accordance with its terms or until three months after written notice of its revocation has been deposited with the Depositary.
      • 5. The expiry of a declaration, a notice of revocation or a new declaration shall not in any way affect proceedings pending before an arbitral tribunal or the International Court of Justice unless the parties to the dispute otherwise agree.
      • 6. If the parties to a dispute have not accepted the same or any procedure pursuant to paragraph 2, and if they have not been able to settle their dispute within twelve months following notification by one party to another that a dispute exists between them, the dispute shall be submitted to a conciliation commission at the request of any party to the dispute. The conciliation commission shall render a report with recommendations. Additional procedures relating to the conciliation commission shall be included in an annex to be adopted by the Conference of the Parties no later than the second meeting of the Conference.
    • ARTICLE 21 Amendments to the Convention
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      Adjustment Procedure

      • 1. Amendments to this Convention may be proposed by any Party.
      • 2. Amendments to this Convention shall be adopted at a meeting of the Conference of the Parties. The text of any proposed amendment shall be communicated to the Parties by the Secretariat at least six months before the meeting at which it is proposed for adoption. The Secretariat shall also communicate the proposed amendment to the signatories to this Convention and, for information, to the Depositary.
      • 3. The Parties shall make every effort to reach agreement on any proposed amendment to this Convention by consensus. If all efforts at consensus have been exhausted, and no agreement reached, the amendment shall as a last resort be adopted by a three-fourths majority vote of the Parties present and voting at the meeting.
      • 4. The amendment shall be communicated by the Depositary to all Parties for ratification, acceptance or approval.
      • 5. Ratification, acceptance or approval of an amendment shall be notified to the Depositary in writing. An amendment adopted in accordance with paragraph 3 shall enter into force for the Parties having accepted it on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval by at least three fourths of the Parties. Thereafter, the amendment shall enter into force for any other Party on the ninetieth day after the date on which that Party deposits its instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval of the amendment.
    • ARTICLE 22 Adoption and amendment of annexes
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      Listing or Amendments to Annexes
      Adjustment Procedure

      • 1. Annexes to this Convention shall form an integral part thereof and, unless expressly provided otherwise, a reference to this Convention constitutes at the same time a reference to any annexes thereto.
      • 2. Annexes shall be restricted to procedural, scientific, technical or administrative matters.
      • 3. The following procedure shall apply to the proposal, adoption and entry into force of additional annexes to this Convention:
      • (a) Additional annexes shall be proposed and adopted according to the procedure laid down in paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 of Article 21;
      • (b) Any Party that is unable to accept an additional annex shall so notify the Depositary, in writing, within one year from the date of communication of the adoption of the additional annex by the Depositary. The Depositary shall without delay notify all Parties of any such notification received. A Party may at any time withdraw a previous notification of non acceptance in respect of an additional annex and the annex shall thereupon enter into force for that Party subject to subparagraph (c) below; and
      • (c) On the expiry of one year from the date of the communication by the Depositary of the adoption of an additional annex, the annex shall enter into force for all Parties that have not submitted a notification in accordance with the provisions of subparagraph (b) above.
      • 4. Except in the case of Annex III, the proposal, adoption and entry into force of amendments to annexes to this Convention shall be subject to the same procedures as for the proposal, adoption and entry into force of additional annexes to the Convention.
      • 5. The following procedure shall apply to the proposal, adoption and entry into force of amendments to Annex III:
      • (a) Amendments to Annex III shall be proposed and adopted according to the procedure laid down in Articles 5 to 9 and paragraph 2 of Article 21;
      • (b) The Conference of the Parties shall take its decisions on adoption by consensus;
      • (c) A decision to amend Annex III shall forthwith be communicated to the Parties by the Depositary. The amendment shall enter into force for all Parties on a date to be specified in the decision.
      • 6. If an additional annex or an amendment to an annex is related to an amendment to this Convention, the additional annex or amendment shall not enter into force until such time as the amendment to the Convention enters into force.
    • ARTICLE 23 Voting
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      • 1. Each Party to this Convention shall have one vote, except as provided for in paragraph 2 below. Party
      • 2. A regional economic integration organization, on matters within its competence, shall exercise its right to vote with a number of votes equal to the number of its member States that are Parties to this Convention. Such an organization shall not exercise its right to vote if any of its member States exercises its right to vote, and vice versa. Regional Economic Integration Organization
      • 3. For the purposes of this Convention, "Parties present and voting" means Parties present and casting an affirmative or negative vote. Party
    • ARTICLE 24 Signature
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      Signature

      • This Convention shall be open for signature at Rotterdam by all States and regional economic integration organizations on 11 September 1998, and at United Nations Headquarters in New York from 12 September 1998 to 10 September 1999. Signature
    • ARTICLE 25 Ratification, acceptance, approval or accession
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      Acceptance
      Approval
      Ratification
      Regional Economic Integration Organization

      • 1. This Convention shall be subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by States and by regional economic integration organizations. It shall be open for accession by States and by regional economic integration organizations from the day after the date on which the Convention is closed for signature. Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited with the Depositary.
      • 2. Any regional economic integration organization that becomes a Party to this Convention without any of its member States being a Party shall be bound by all the obligations under the Convention. In the case of such organizations, one or more of whose member States is a Party to this Convention, the organization and its member States shall decide on their respective responsibilities for the performance of their obligations under the Convention. In such cases, the organization and the member States shall not be entitled to exercise rights under the Convention concurrently.
      • 3. In its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, a regional economic integration organization shall declare the extent of its competence in respect of the matters governed by this Convention. Any such organization shall also inform the Depositary, who shall in turn inform the Parties, of any relevant modification in the extent of its competence.
    • ARTICLE 26 Entry into force
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      Accession
      Acceptance
      Approval
      Entry into force
      Ratification

      • 1. This Convention shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit of the fiftieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
      • 2. For each State or regional economic integration organization that ratifies, accepts or approves this Convention or accedes thereto after the deposit of the fiftieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, the Convention shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit by such State or regional economic integration organization of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
      • 3. For the purpose of paragraphs 1 and 2, any instrument deposited by a regional economic integration organization shall not be counted as additional to those deposited by member States of that organization.
    • ARTICLE 27 Reservations
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      Reservations

      • No reservations may be made to this Convention.
    • ARTICLE 28 Withdrawal
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      Withdrawal

      • 1. At any time after three years from the date on which this Convention has entered into force for a Party, that Party may withdraw from the Convention by giving written notification to the Depositary.
      • 2. Any such withdrawal shall take effect upon expiry of one year from the date of receipt by the Depositary of the notification of withdrawal, or on such later date as may be specified in the notification of withdrawal.
    • ARTICLE 29 Depositary
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      Entry into force
      Depositary

      • The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be the Depositary of this Convention.
    • ARTICLE 30 Authentic texts
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      • The original of this Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Depositary
      • IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, being duly authorized to that effect, have signed this Convention.
      • Done at Rotterdam on this tenth day of September, one thousand nine hundred and ninety-eight.
    • Annex I INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS FOR NOTIFICATIONS MADE PURSUANT TO ARTICLE 5
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      • Notifications shall include:

         

        1.             Properties, identification and uses

        (a)           Common name;

        (b)           Chemical name according to an internationally recognized nomenclature (for example, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)), where such nomenclature exists;

        (c)           Trade names and names of preparations;

        (d)           Code numbers: Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) number, Harmonized System customs code and other numbers;

        (e)           Information on hazard classification, where the chemical is subject to classification requirements;

        (f)            Use or uses of the chemical;

        (g)           Physico-chemical, toxicological and ecotoxicological properties.

         

        2.             Final regulatory action

        (a)           Information specific to the final regulatory action:

                        (i)            Summary of the final regulatory action;

                        (ii)           Reference to the regulatory document;

                        (iii)          Date of entry into force of the final regulatory action;

                        (iv)          Indication of whether the final regulatory action was taken on the basis of a risk or hazard evaluation and, if so, information on such evaluation, covering a reference to the relevant documentation;

                        (v)           Reasons for the final regulatory action relevant to human health, including the health of consumers and workers, or the environment;

                        (vi)          Summary of the hazards and risks presented by the chemical to human health, including the health of consumers and workers, or the environment and the expected effect of the final regulatory action;

        (b)           Category or categories where the final regulatory action has been taken, and for each category:

                        (i)            Use or uses prohibited by the final regulatory action;

                        (ii)           Use or uses that remain allowed;

                        (iii)          Estimation, where available, of quantities of the chemical produced, imported, exported and used;

        (c)           An indication, to the extent possible, of the likely relevance of the final regulatory action to other States and regions;

        (d)           Other relevant information that may cover:

                        (i)            Assessment of socio-economic effects of the final regulatory action;

                        (ii)           Information on alternatives and their relative risks, where available, such as:

        -               Integrated pest management strategies;

        -               Industrial practices and processes, including cleaner technology.

    • ANNEX II CRITERIA FOR LISTING BANNED OR SEVERELY RESTRICTED CHEMICALS IN ANNEX III
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      • In reviewing the notifications forwarded by the Secretariat pursuant to paragraph 5 of Article 5, the Chemical Review Committee shall:

        (a)           Confirm that the final regulatory action has been taken in order to protect human health or the environment;

        (b)           Establish that the final regulatory action has been taken as a consequence of a risk evaluation. This evaluation shall be based on a review of scientific data in the context of the conditions prevailing in the Party in question. For this purpose, the documentation provided shall demonstrate that:

                        (i)            Data have been generated according to scientifically recognized methods;

                        (ii)           Data reviews have been performed and documented according to generally recognized scientific principles and procedures;

                        (iii)          The final regulatory action was based on a risk evaluation involving prevailing conditions within the Party taking the action;

        (c)           Consider whether the final regulatory action provides a sufficiently broad basis to merit listing of the chemical in Annex III, by taking into account:

                        (i)            Whether the final regulatory action led, or would be expected to lead, to a significant decrease in the quantity of the chemical used or the number of its uses;

                        (ii)           Whether the final regulatory action led to an actual reduction of risk or would be expected to result in a significant reduction of risk for human health or the environment of the Party that submitted the notification;

                        (iii)          Whether the considerations that led to the final regulatory action being taken are applicable only in a limited geographical area or in other limited circumstances;

                        (iv)          Whether there is evidence of ongoing international trade in the chemical;

        (d)           Take into account that intentional misuse is not in itself an adequate reason to list a chemical in Annex III.

    • ANNEX III CHEMICALS SUBJECT TO THE PRIOR INFORMED CONSENT PROCEDURE
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      •  

        Chemical

        Relevant CAS number(s)

        Category

        2,4,5-T and its salts and esters

         

        93-76-5*

        Pesticide

        Aldrin

         

        309-00-2

        Pesticide

        Binapacryl

         

        485–31-4

        Pesticide

        Captafol

         

        2425-06-1

        Pesticide

        Chlordane

         

        57-74-9

        Pesticide

        Chlordimeform

         

        6164-98-3

        Pesticide

        Chlorobenzilate

         

        510-15-6

        Pesticide

        DDT

         

        50-29-3

        Pesticide

        Dieldrin

         

        60-57-1

        Pesticide

        Dinitro-ortho-cresol (DNOC)
        and its salts (such as ammonium salt, potassium salt and sodium salt)

         

        534-52-1

        2980-64-5

        5787-96-2

        2312-76-7

        Pesticide

        Dinoseb and its salts and esters

         

        88-85-7*

        Pesticide

        1,2-dibromoethane (EDB)

         

        106-93-4

        Pesticide

        Ethylene dichloride

         

        107-06-2

        Pesticide

        Ethylene oxide

         

        75-21-8

        Pesticide

        Fluoroacetamide

         

        640-19-7

        Pesticide

        HCH (mixed isomers)

         

        608-73-1

        Pesticide

        Heptachlor

         

        76-44-8

        Pesticide

        Hexachlorobenzene

         

        118-74-1

        Pesticide

        Lindane

         

        58-89-9

        Pesticide

        Mercury compounds,
        including inorganic mercury compounds, alkyl mercury compounds and alkyloxyalkyl and aryl mercury compounds

         

         

        Pesticide

        Monocrotophos

         

        6923-22-4

        Pesticide

        Parathion

         

        56-38-2

        Pesticide

        Pentachlorophenol and its salts and esters

         

        87-86-5*

        Pesticide

        Toxaphene

         

        8001-35-2

        Pesticide

        All tributyltin compounds including:

        – Tributyltin oxide

        – Tributyltin fluoride

        – Tributyltin methacrylate

        – Tributyltin benzoate

        – Tributyltin chloride

        – Tributyltin linoleate

        – Tributyltin naphthenate

         

         

        56-35-9

        1983-10-4

        2155-70-6

        4342-36-3

        1461-22-9

        24124-25-2

        85409-17-2

        Pesticide

        Dustable powder formulations containing a combination of:

        – Benomyl at or above 7 per cent,

        – Carbofuran at or above 10 per cent,

        – Thiram at or above 15 per cent

         

         

         

        17804-35-2

        1563-66-2

        137-26-8

        Severely hazardous pesticide formulation

        Methamidophos

        (Soluble liquid formulations of the substance that exceed 600 g active ingredient/l)

         

        10265-92-6

        Severely hazardous pesticide formulation

        Phosphamidon

        (Soluble liquid formulations of the substance that exceed 1000 g active ingredient/l)

         

        13171-21-6 (mixture, (E)&(Z) isomers)

        23783-98-4 ((Z)-isomer)

        297-99-4 ((E)-isomer)

        Severely hazardous pesticide formulation

        Methyl-parathion

        (emulsifiable concentrates (EC) at or above 19.5% active ingredient and dusts at or above 1.5% active ingredient)

         

        298-00-0

        Severely hazardous pesticide formulation

        Asbestos:

        – Actinolite

        – Anthophyllite

        – Amosite

        – Crocidolite

        – Tremolite

         

         

        77536-66-4

        77536-67-5

        12172-73-5

        12001-28-4

        77536-68-6

         

        Industrial

        Industrial

        Industrial

        Industrial

        Industrial

        Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB)

         

        36355-01-8 (hexa-)

        27858-07-7 (octa-)

        13654-09-6 (deca-)

        Industrial

        Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)

         

        1336-36-3

        Industrial

        Polychlorinated terphenyls (PCT)

         

        61788-33-8

        Industrial

        Tetraethyl lead

         

        78-00-2

        Industrial

        Tetramethyl lead

         

        75-74-1

        Industrial

        Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate

         

        126-72-7

        Industrial

         

        *              Only the CAS numbers of parent compounds are listed. For a list of other relevant CAS numbers, reference may be made to the relevant decision guidance document.


    • ANNEX IV INFORMATION AND CRITERIA FOR LISTING SEVERELY HAZARDOUS PESTICIDE FORMULATIONS IN ANNEX III
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      • Part 1.  Documentation required from a proposing Party

         

        Proposals submitted pursuant to paragraph 1 of Article 6 shall include adequate documentation containing the following information:

        (a)           Name of the hazardous pesticide formulation;

        (b)           Name of the active ingredient or ingredients in the formulation;

        (c)           Relative amount of each active ingredient in the formulation;

        (d)           Type of formulation;

        (e)           Trade names and names of the producers, if available;

        (f)            Common and recognized patterns of use of the formulation within the proposing Party;     

        (g)           A clear description of incidents related to the problem, including the adverse effects and the way in which the formulation was used;

        (h)           Any regulatory, administrative or other measure taken, or intended to be taken, by the proposing Party in response to such incidents.

         

         

        Part 2.  Information to be collected by the Secretariat

         

        Pursuant to paragraph 3 of Article 6, the Secretariat shall collect relevant information relating to the formulation, including:

        (a)           The physico-chemical, toxicological and ecotoxicological properties of the formulation;

        (b)           The existence of handling or applicator restrictions in other States;

        (c)           Information on incidents related to the formulation in other States;

        (d)           Information submitted by other Parties, international organizations, non-governmental organizations or other relevant sources, whether national or international;

        (e)           Risk and/or hazard evaluations, where available;

        (f)            Indications, if available, of the extent of use of the formulation, such as the number of registrations or production or sales quantity;

        (g)           Other formulations of the pesticide in question, and incidents, if any, relating to these formulations;

        (h)           Alternative pest‑control practices;

        (i)            Other information which the Chemical Review Committee may identify as relevant.

         

         

        Part 3.  Criteria for listing severely hazardous pesticide formulations in Annex III

         

        In reviewing the proposals forwarded by the Secretariat pursuant to paragraph 5 of Article 6, the Chemical Review Committee shall take into account:

        (a)           The reliability of the evidence indicating that use of the formulation, in accordance with common or recognized practices within the proposing Party, resulted in the reported incidents;

        (b)           The relevance of such incidents to other States with similar climate, conditions and patterns of use of the formulation;

        (c)           The existence of handling or applicator restrictions involving technology or techniques that may not be reasonably or widely applied in States lacking the necessary infrastructure;

        (d)           The significance of reported effects in relation to the quantity of the formulation used;

        (e)           That intentional misuse is not in itself an adequate reason to list a formulation in Annex III.

    • ANNEX V INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS FOR EXPORT NOTIFICATION
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      • 1.             Export notifications shall contain the following information:

        (a)                 Name and address of the relevant designated national authorities of the exporting Party and the importing Party;

        (b)                 Expected date of export to the importing Party;

        (c)                 Name of the banned or severely restricted chemical and a summary of the information specified in Annex I that is to be provided to the Secretariat in accordance with Article 5. Where more than one such chemical is included in a mixture or preparation, such information shall be provided for each chemical;

        (d)                 A statement indicating, if known, the foreseen category of the chemical and its foreseen use within that category in the importing Party;

        (e)                 Information on precautionary measures to reduce exposure to, and emission of, the chemical;

        (f)                  In the case of a mixture or a preparation, the concentration of the banned or severely restricted chemical or chemicals in question;

        (g)                 Name and address of the importer;

        (h)                 Any additional information that is readily available to the relevant designated national authority of the exporting Party that would be of assistance to the designated national authority of the importing Party.

         

        2.             In addition to the information referred to in paragraph 1, the exporting Party shall provide such further information specified in Annex I as may be requested by the importing Party.

         

         

    • ANNEX VI SETTLEMENTS OF DISPUTES
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      • A.            Rules on arbitration

         

        The arbitration procedure for purposes of paragraph 2 (a) of article 20 of the Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade shall be as follows:

         

         

        Article 1

         

        1.             A Party may initiate recourse to arbitration in accordance with article 20 of the Convention by written notification addressed to the other Party to the dispute. The notification shall be accompanied by a statement of the claim, together with any supporting documents, and shall state the subject matter for arbitration including, in particular, the articles of the Convention the interpretation or application of which are at issue.

         

        2.             The claimant Party shall notify the secretariat that the Parties are referring a dispute to arbitration pursuant to article 20. The written notification of the claimant Party shall be accompanied by the statement of claim and the supporting documents referred to in paragraph 1 above. The secretariat shall forward the information thus received to all Parties.

         

         

        Article 2

         

        1.             In disputes between two Parties, an Arbitral Tribunal shall be established. It shall consist of three members.

         

        2.             Each of the Parties to the dispute shall appoint an arbitrator and the two arbitrators so appointed shall designate by common agreement the third arbitrator, who shall be the President of the Tribunal. The President of the Tribunal shall not be a national of one of the Parties to the dispute, nor have his or her usual place of residence in the territory of one of these Parties, nor be employed by any of them, nor have dealt with the case in any other capacity.

         

        3.             In disputes between more than two Parties, Parties in the same interest shall appoint one arbitrator jointly by agreement.

         

        4.             Any vacancy shall be filled in the manner prescribed for the initial appointment.

         

        5.             If the Parties do not agree on the subject matter of the dispute before the President of the Arbitral Tribunal is designated, the Arbitral Tribunal shall determine the subject matter.

         

         

        Article 3

         

        1.             If one of the Parties to the dispute does not appoint an arbitrator within two months of the date on which the respondent Party receives the notification of the arbitration, the other Party may inform the Secretary-General of the United Nations who shall make the designation within a further two-month period.

         

        2.             If the President of the Arbitral Tribunal has not been designated within two months of the date of the appointment of the second arbitrator, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall, at the request of a Party, designate the President within a further two‑month period.

         

         

        Article 4

         

        The Arbitral Tribunal shall render its decisions in accordance with the provisions of the Convention and international law.

         

         

        Article 5

         

        Unless the parties to the dispute agree otherwise, the Arbitral Tribunal shall determine its own rules of procedure.

         

         

        Article 6

         

        The Arbitral Tribunal may, at the request of one of the Parties, recommend essential interim measures of protection.

         

         

        Article 7

         

        The Parties to the dispute shall facilitate the work of the Arbitral Tribunal and, in particular, using all means at their disposal, shall:

                        (a)           Provide it with all relevant documents, information and facilities; and

                        (b)           Enable it, when necessary, to call witnesses or experts and receive their evidence.

         

         

        Article 8

         

        The Parties and the arbitrators are under an obligation to protect the confidentiality of any information they receive in confidence during the proceedings of the Arbitral Tribunal.

         

         

        Article 9

         

        Unless the Arbitral Tribunal determines otherwise because of the particular circumstances of the case, the costs of the Tribunal shall be borne by the Parties to the dispute in equal shares. The Tribunal shall keep a record of all its costs and shall furnish a final statement thereof to the Parties.

         

         

        Article 10

         

        A Party that has an interest of a legal nature in the subject matter of the dispute which may be affected by the decision in the case, may intervene in the proceedings with the consent of the Arbitral Tribunal.

         

         

        Article 11

         

        The Arbitral Tribunal may hear and determine counterclaims arising directly out of the subject matter of the dispute.

         

         

        Article 12

         

        Decisions of the Arbitral Tribunal on both procedure and substance shall be taken by a majority vote of its members.

         

         

        Article 13

         

        1.             If one of the Parties to the dispute does not appear before the Arbitral Tribunal or fails to defend its case, the other Party may request the Tribunal to continue the proceedings and to render its decision. Absence of a Party or failure of a Party to defend its case shall not constitute a bar to the proceedings.

         

        2.             Before rendering its final decision, the Arbitral Tribunal must satisfy itself that the claim is well founded in fact and law.

         

         

        Article 14

         

        The Arbitral Tribunal shall render its final decision within five months of the date on which it is fully constituted, unless it finds it necessary to extend the time limit for a period which should not exceed five more months.

         

         

        Article 15

         

        The final decision of the Arbitral Tribunal shall be confined to the subject matter of the dispute and shall state the reasons on which it is based. It shall contain the names of the members who have participated and the date of the final decision. Any member of the Tribunal may attach a separate or dissenting opinion to the final decision.

         

         

        Article 16

         

        The award shall be binding on the parties to the dispute. The interpretation of the Convention given by the award shall also be binding upon a Party intervening under article 10 above insofar as it relates to matters in respect of which that Party intervened. The award shall be without appeal unless the parties to the dispute have agreed in advance to an appellate procedure.

         

         

        Article 17

         

        Any controversy which may arise between those bound by the final decision in accordance with article 16 above, as regards the interpretation or manner of implementation of that decision, may be submitted by any of them for decision to the Arbitral Tribunal which rendered it.

         

         

        B.            Rules on conciliation

         

        The conciliation procedure for purposes of paragraph 6 of article 20 of the Convention shall be as follows.

         

         

        Article 1

         

        1.             A request by a party to a dispute to establish a conciliation commission in consequence of paragraph 6 of article 20 shall be addressed in writing to the Secretariat. The Secretariat shall forthwith inform all Parties accordingly.

         

        2.             The conciliation commission shall, unless the parties otherwise agree, be composed of five members, two appointed by each Party concerned and a President chosen jointly by those members.

         

         

        Article 2

         

        In disputes between more than two parties, parties in the same interest shall appoint their members of the commission jointly by agreement.

         

         

        Article 3

         

        If any appointments by the parties are not made within two months of the date of receipt by the Secretariat of the written request referred to in article 1, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall, upon request by a party, make those appointments within a further two-month period.

         

         

        Article 4

         

        If the President of the conciliation commission has not been chosen within two months of the fourth member of the commission being appointed, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall, upon request by a party, designate the President within a further two-month period.

         

         

        Article 5

         

        1.             The conciliation commission shall, unless the parties to the dispute otherwise agree, determine its own rules of procedure.

         

        2.             The parties and members of the commission are under an obligation to protect the confidentiality of any information they receive in confidence during the proceedings of the commission.

         

         

        Article 6

         

        The conciliation commission shall take its decisions by a majority vote of its members.

         

         

        Article 7

         

        The conciliation commission shall render a report with recommendations for resolution of the dispute within twelve months of being established, which the parties shall consider in good faith.

         

         

        Article 8

         

        Any disagreement as to whether the conciliation commission has competence to consider a matter referred to it shall be decided by the commission.

         

         

        Article 9

         

        The costs of the Commission shall be borne by the parties to the dispute in shares agreed by them. The Commission shall keep the record of all its costs and shall furnish a final statement thereof to the parties.