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THE CONTRACTING PARTIES,

RECALLING further that the first meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention, held in Bonn in October 1985, instructed the Secretariat of the Convention to take appropriate measures to develop an Agreement on Western Palearctic Anatidae;

SDG Goals:
RECALLING further that the first meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention, held in Bonn in October 1985, instructed the Secretariat of the Convention to take appropriate measures to develop an Agreement on Western Palearctic Anatidae;
CONSIDERING that migratory waterbirds constitute an important part of the global biological diversity which, in keeping with the spirit of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992, and Agenda 21 should be conserved for the benefit of present and future generations;
SDG Goals:

AWARE of the economic, social, cultural and recreational benefits accruing from the taking of certain species of migratory waterbirds and of the environmental, ecological, genetic, scientific, aesthetic, recreational, cultural, educational, social and economic values of waterbirds in general;

SDG Goals:
CONVINCED that any taking of migratory waterbirds must be conducted on a sustainable basis, taking into account the conservation status of the species concerned over their entire range as well as their biological characteristics;
SDG Goals:
CONSCIOUS that migratory waterbirds are particularly vulnerable because they migrate over long distances and are dependent on networks of wetlands that are decreasing in extent and becoming degraded through non sustainable human activities, as is expressed in the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat, 1971;
RECOGNIZING the need to take immediate action to stop the decline of migratory waterbird species and their habitats in the geographic area of the African Eurasian waterbird migration systems;
SDG Goals:
CONVINCED that the conclusion of a multilateral Agreement and its implementation through coordinated or concerted action will contribute significantly to the conservation of migratory waterbirds and their habitats in the most efficient manner, and will have ancillary benefits for many other species of animals and plants; and

ACKNOWLEDGING that effective implementation of such an Agreement will require assistance to be provided to some Range States for research, training and monitoring of migratory waterbird species and their habitats, for the management of those habitats as well as for the establishment or improvement of scientific and administrative institutions for the implementation of this Agreement:

SDG Goals:
HAVE AGREED AS FOLLOWS:
1. The geographic scope of this Agreement is the area of the migration systems of African Eurasian waterbirds, as defined in Annex 1 to this Agreement, hereafter referred to as the "Agreement Area".
2. For the purpose of this Agreement:
(a) "Convention" means the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, 1979;
(b) "Convention Secretariat" means the body established under Article IX of the Convention;

(c) "Oiseaux d'eau" signifie les espèces d'oiseaux qui dépendent écologiquement des zones humides pendant une partie au moins de leur cycle annuel, qui ont une aire de répartition située entièrement ou partiellement dans la zone de l'Accord, et qui figurent à l'Annexe 2 du présent Accord ;

(d) "Agreement secretariat" means the body established under Article VI, paragraph 7, subparagraph (b), of this Agreement;
(e) "Parties" means, unless the context otherwise indicates, Parties to this Agreement; and
(f) "Parties present and voting" means the Parties present and casting an affirmative or negative vote; those abstaining from voting shall not be counted amongst the Parties present and voting.
In addition, the terms defined in Article I, subparagraphs 1(a) to (k), of the Convention shall have the same meaning, mutatis mutandis, in this Agreement.
3. This Agreement is an AGREEMENT within the meaning of Article IV, paragraph 3, of the Convention.
4. The annexes to this Agreement form an integral part thereof. Any reference to the Agreement includes a reference to its annexes.
1. Parties shall take co ordinated measures to maintain migratory waterbird species in a favourable conservation status or to restore them to such a status. To this end, they shall apply within the limits of their national jurisdiction the measures prescribed in Article III, together with the specific actions determined in the Action Plan provided for in Article IV, of this Agreement.

2.In implementing the measures prescribed in paragraph 1 above, Parties should take into account the precautionary principle.

1. The Parties shall take measures to conserve migratory waterbirds, giving special attention to endangered species as well as to those with an unfavourable conservation status.
2. To this end, the Parties shall:
(a) accord the same strict protection for endangered migratory waterbird species in the Agreement Area as is provided for under Article III, paragraphs 4 and 5, of the Convention;
(b) ensure that any use of migratory waterbirds is based on an assessment of the best available knowledge of their ecology and is sustainable for the species as well as for the ecological systems that support them;
(c) identify sites and habitats for migratory waterbirds occurring within their territory and encourage the protection, management, rehabilitation and restoration of these sites, in liaison with those bodies listed in Article IX, paragraphs (a) and (b) of this Agreement, concerned with habitat conservation;
(d) coordinate their efforts to ensure that a network of suitable habitats is maintained or, where appropriate, re established throughout the entire range of each migratory waterbird species concerned, in particular where wetlands extend over the area of more than one Party to this Agreement;
(e) investigate problems that are posed or are likely to be posed by human activities and endeavour to implement remedial measures, including habitat rehabilitation and restoration, and compensatory measures for loss of habitat;
(f) cooperate in emergency situations requiring international concerted action and in identifying the species of migratory waterbirds which are the most vulnerable to these situations as well as cooperate in developing appropriate emergency procedures to provide increased protection to these species in such situations and in the preparation of guidelines to assist individual Parties in tackling these situations;
(g) prohibit the deliberate introduction of non native waterbird species into the environment and take all appropriate measures to prevent the unintentional release of such species if this introduction or release would prejudice the conservation status of wild flora and fauna; when non native waterbird species have already been introduced, the Parties shall take all appropriate measures to prevent these species from becoming a potential threat to indigenous species;
(h) initiate or support research into the biology and ecology of migratory waterbirds including the harmonization of research and monitoring methods and, where appropriate, the establishment of joint or cooperative research and monitoring programmes;
(i) analyze their training requirements for, inter alia, migratory waterbird surveys, monitoring, ringing and wetland management to identify priority topics and areas for training and cooperate in the development and provision of appropriate training programmes;
(j) develop and maintain programmes to raise awareness and understanding of migratory waterbird conservation issues in general and of the particular objectives and provisions of this Agreement;
(k) exchange information and results from research, monitoring, conservation and education programmes; and
SDG Goals:
(l) cooperate with a view to assisting each other to implement this Agreement, particularly in the areas of research and monitoring.
SDG Goals:
1. An Action Plan is appended as Annex 3 to this Agreement. It specifies actions which the Parties shall undertake in relation to priority species and issues, under the following headings, consistent with the general conservation measures specified in Article III of this Agreement:
(a) species conservation;
(d) research and monitoring;
(e) education and information; and
(f) implementation.
2. The Action Plan shall be reviewed at each ordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties, taking into account the Conservation Guidelines.
3. Any amendment to the Action Plan shall be adopted by the Meeting of the Parties, taking into consideration the provisions of Article III of this Agreement.
4. The Conservation Guidelines shall be submitted to the Meeting of the Parties for adoption at its first session, and shall be regularly reviewed.
1. Each Party shall:
(a) designate the Authority or Authorities to implement this Agreement which shall, inter alia, monitor all activities that may have impact on the conservation status of those migratory waterbird species of which the Party is a Range State;
(b) designate a contact point for the other Parties, and communicate without delay its name and address to the Agreement secretariat to be circulated forthwith to the other Parties; and
(c) prepare for each ordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties, beginning with the second session, a report on its implementation of the Agreement with particular reference to the conservation measures it has undertaken. The format of such reports shall be determined by the first session of the Meeting of the Parties and reviewed as may be necessary at any subsequent session of the Meeting of the Parties. Each report shall be submitted to the Agreement secretariat not less than one hundred and twenty days before the ordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties for which it has been prepared, and copies shall be circulated forthwith to the other Parties by the Agreement secretariat.
Each Party shall:
2 (a)Each Party shall contribute to the budget of the Agreement in accordance with the United Nations scale of assessment. The contributions shall be restricted to a maximum of 25 per cent of the total budget for any Party that is a Range State. No regional economic integration organization shall be required to contribute more than 2.5 per cent of the administrative costs.
(b) Decisions relating to the budget and any changes to the scale of assessment that may be found necessary shall be adopted by the Meeting of the Parties by consensus.
3. The Meeting of the Parties may establish a conservation fund from voluntary contributions of Parties or from any other source for the purpose of financing monitoring, research, training and projects relating to the conservation, including protection and management, of migratory waterbirds.
4. Parties are encouraged to provide training and technical and financial support to other Parties on a multilateral or bilateral basis to assist them in implementing the provisions of this Agreement.
1. The Meeting of the Parties shall be the decision-making body of this Agreement.
2. The Depositary shall, in consultation with the Convention Secretariat, convene a session of the Meeting of the Parties not later than one year after the date of the entry into force of this Agreement. Thereafter, the Agreement secretariat shall convene, in consultation with the Convention Secretariat, ordinary sessions of the Meeting of the Parties at intervals of not more than three years, unless the Meeting of the Parties decides otherwise. Where it is possible to do so, such sessions should be held in conjunction with the ordinary meetings of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention.
3. On the written request of at least one third of the Parties, the Agreement secretariat shall convene an extraordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties.
4. The United Nations, its Specialized Agencies, the International Atomic Energy Agency, any State not a Party to the Agreement, and the secretariats of international conventions concerned inter alia with the conservation, including protection and management, of migratory waterbirds may be represented by observers in sessions of the Meeting of the Parties. Any agency or body technically qualified in such conservation matters or in research on migratory waterbirds may also be represented at sessions of the Meeting of the Parties by observers, unless at least one third of the Parties present object.
5. Only Parties have the right to vote. Each Party shall have one vote, but regional economic integration organizations which are Parties to this Agreement shall, in matters within their competence, exercise their right to vote with a number of votes equal to the number of their Member States which are Parties to the Agreement. A regional economic integration organization shall not exercise its right to vote if its Member States exercise theirs, and vice versa.
6. Unless provided otherwise in this Agreement, decisions of the Meeting of the Parties shall be adopted by consensus or, if consensus cannot be achieved, by a two-thirds majority of the Parties present and voting.
7. At its first session, the Meeting of the Parties shall:
(a) adopt its rules of procedure by consensus;
(b) establish an Agreement secretariat within the Convention Secretariat to perform the secretariat functions listed in Article VIII of this Agreement;
(c) establish the Technical Committee provided for in Article VII of this Agreement;
(d) adopt a format for the reports to be prepared according to Article V, paragraph 1, subparagraph (c), of this Agreement; and
(e) adopt criteria to define emergency situations which require urgent conservation measures, and determine the modalities for assigning responsibility for action to be taken.
8. At each of its ordinary sessions, the Meeting of the Parties shall:
(a) consider actual and potential changes in the conservation status of migratory waterbirds and the habitats important for their survival, as well as the factors which may affect them;
(b) review the progress made and any difficulty encountered in the implementation of this Agreement;
(c) adopt a budget and consider any matters relating to the financial arrangements for this Agreement;
(d) deal with any matter relating to the Agreement secretariat and the membership of the Technical Committee;
(e) adopt a report for communication to the Parties to this Agreement and to the Conference of the Parties of the Convention; and
(f) determine the time and venue of the next session.
9. At any of its sessions, the Meeting of the Parties may:
(a) make recommendations to the Parties as it deems necessary or appropriate;
(b) adopt specific actions to improve the effectiveness of this Agreement and, as the case may be, emergency measures as provided for in Article VII, paragraph 4, of this Agreement;
(c) consider and decide upon proposals to amend this Agreement;
(d) amend the Action Plan in accordance with Article IV, paragraph 3, of this Agreement;
(e) establish such subsidiary bodies as it deems necessary to assist in the implementation of this Agreement, in particular for coordination with bodies established under other international treaties, conventions and agreements with overlapping geographic and taxonomic coverage; and
(f) decide on any other matter relating to the implementation of this Agreement.
1. The Technical Committee shall comprise:
(a) nine experts representing different regions of the Agreement Area, in accordance with a balanced geographical distribution;
(b) one representative from the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), one from the International Waterfowl and Wetlands Research Bureau (IWRB) and one from the International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation (CIC); and
(c) one expert from each of the following fields: rural economics, game management, and environmental law.
The procedure for the appointment of the experts, the term of their appointment and the procedure for designation of the Chairman of the Technical Committee shall be determined by the Meeting of the Parties. The Chairman may admit a maximum of four observers from specialized international inter-governmental and non governmental organizations.
2. Unless the Meeting of the Parties decides otherwise, meetings of the Technical Committee shall be convened by the Agreement secretariat in conjunction with each ordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties and at least once between ordinary sessions of the Meeting of the Parties.
3. The Technical Committee shall:
(a) provide scientific and technical advice and information to the Meeting of the Parties and, through the Agreement secretariat, to Parties;
(b) make recommendations to the Meeting of the Parties concerning the Action Plan, implementation of the Agreement and further research to be carried out;
(c) prepare for each ordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties a report on its activities, which shall be submitted to the Agreement secretariat not less than one hundred and twenty days before the session of the Meeting of the Parties, and copies shall be circulated forthwith by the Agreement secretariat to the Parties; and
(d) carry out any other tasks referred to it by the Meeting of the Parties.
4. Where in the opinion of the Technical Committee there has arisen an emergency which requires the adoption of immediate measures to avoid deterioration of the conservation status of one or more migratory waterbird species, the Technical Committee may request the Agreement secretariat to convene urgently a meeting of the Parties concerned. These Parties shall meet as soon as possible thereafter to establish rapidly a mechanism to give protection to the species identified as being subject to particularly adverse threat. Where a recommendation has been adopted at such a meeting, the Parties concerned shall inform each other and the Agreement secretariat of measures they have taken to implement it, or of the reasons why the recommendation could not be implemented.
5. The Technical Committee may establish such working groups as may be necessary to deal with specific tasks.
The functions of the Agreement secretariat shall be:
(a) to arrange and service the sessions of the Meeting of the Parties as well as the meetings of the Technical Committee;
(b) to execute the decisions addressed to it by the Meeting of the Parties;
(c) to promote and coordinate activities under the Agreement, including the Action Plan, in accordance with decisions of the Meeting of the Parties;
(d) to liaise with non Party Range States and to facilitate coordination between the Parties and with international and national organizations, the activities of which are directly or indirectly relevant to the conservation, including protection and management, of migratory waterbirds;
(e) to gather and evaluate information which will further the objectives and implementation of the Agreement and to arrange for appropriate dissemination of such information;
to gather and evaluate information which will further the objectives and implementation of the Agreement and to arrange for appropriate dissemination of such information;
(f) to invite the attention of the Meeting of the Parties to matters pertaining to the objectives of this Agreement;
(g) to circulate copies of the reports of the Authorities referred to in Article V, paragraph 1, subparagraph (a), of this Agreement and of the Technical Committee, along with copies of the reports it must provide pursuant to paragraph (h) of this Article, to each Party not less than sixty days before the commencement of each ordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties;
(h) to prepare, on an annual basis and for each ordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties, reports on the work of the secretariat and on the implementation of the Agreement;
(i) to administer the budget for the Agreement and, if established, its conservation fund;
(j) to provide information for the general public concerning the Agreement and its objectives; and
(k) to perform such other functions as may be entrusted to it under the Agreement or by the Meeting of the Parties.
The Agreement secretariat shall consult:
(a) on a regular basis, the Convention Secretariat and, where appropriate, the bodies responsible for the secretariat functions under Agreements concluded pursuant to Article IV, paragraphs 3 and 4, of the Convention which are relevant to migratory waterbirds, the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat, 1971, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, 1973, the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 1968, the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, 1979, and the Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992, with a view to the Meeting of the Parties cooperating with the Parties to these conventions on all matters of common interest and, in particular, in the development and implementation of the Action Plan;
(b) the secretariats of other pertinent conventions and international instruments in respect of matters of common interest; and
(c) other organizations competent in the field of conservation, including protection and management, of migratory waterbirds and their habitats, as well as in the fields of research, education and awareness raising.
1. This Agreement may be amended at any ordinary or extraordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties.
2. Proposals for amendment may be made by any Party.
3. The text of any proposed amendment and the reasons for it shall be communicated to the Agreement secretariat not less than one hundred and fifty days before the opening of the session. The Agreement secretariat shall transmit copies forthwith to the Parties. Any comments on the text by the Parties shall be communicated to the Agreement secretariat not less than sixty days before the opening of the session. The Secretariat shall, as soon as possible after the last day for submission of comments, communicate to the Parties all comments submitted by that day.
4. An amendment to the Agreement other than an amendment to its annexes shall be adopted by a two-thirds majority of the Parties present and voting and shall enter into force for those Parties which have accepted it on the thirtieth day after the date on which two thirds of the Parties to the Agreement at the date of the adoption of the amendment have deposited their instruments of acceptance of the amendment with the Depositary. For each Party which deposits an instrument of acceptance after the date on which two thirds of the Parties have deposited their instruments of acceptance, the amendment shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date on which it deposits its instrument of acceptance.
5. Any additional annexes and any amendment to an annex shall be adopted by a two thirds majority of the Parties present and voting and shall enter into force for all Parties on the ninetieth day after the date of its adoption by the Meeting of the Parties, except for Parties which have entered a reservation in accordance with paragraph 6 of this Article.
6. During the period of ninety days provided for in paragraph 5 of this Article, any Party may by written notification to the Depositary enter a reservation with respect to an additional annex or an amendment to an annex. Such reservation may be withdrawn at any time by written notification to the Depositary, and thereupon the additional annex or the amendment shall enter into force for that Party on the thirtieth day after the date of withdrawal of the reservation.
1. The provisions of this Agreement do not affect the rights and obligations of any Party deriving from existing international treaties, conventions or agreements.
SDG Goals:
2. The provisions of this Agreement shall in no way affect the right of any Party to maintain or adopt stricter measures for the conservation of migratory waterbirds and their habitats.
SDG Goals:
1. Any dispute which may arise between two or more Parties with respect to the interpretation or application of the provisions of this Agreement shall be subject to negotiation between the Parties involved in the dispute.
SDG Goals:
2. If the dispute cannot be resolved in accordance with paragraph 1 of this Article, the Parties may, by mutual consent, submit the dispute to arbitration, in particular that of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague, and the Parties submitting the dispute shall be bound by the arbitral decision.
SDG Goals:
1. This Agreement shall be open for signature by any Range State, whether or not areas under its jurisdiction lie within the Agreement Area, or regional economic integration organization, at least one member of which is a Range State, either by:
(a) signature without reservation in respect of ratification, acceptance or approval; or
(b) signature with reservation in respect of ratification, acceptance or approval, followed by ratification, acceptance or approval.
2. This Agreement shall remain open for signature at The Hague until the date of its entry into force.
3. This Agreement shall be open for accession by any Range State or regional economic integration organization mentioned in paragraph 1 above on and after the date of entry into force of the Agreement.
4. Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited with the Depositary.
1. This Agreement shall enter into force on the first day of the third month after at least fourteen Range States or regional economic integration organizations, comprising at least seven from Africa and seven from Eurasia, have signed without reservation in respect of ratification, acceptance or approval, or have deposited their instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval in accordance with Article XIII of this Agreement.
2. For any Range State or regional economic integration organization which has:
(a) signed without reservation in respect of ratification, acceptance, or approval;
(b) ratified, accepted, or approved; or
(c) acceded to
this Agreement after the date on which the number of Range States and regional economic integration organizations necessary to enable entry into force have signed it without reservation or have ratified, accepted or approved it, this Agreement shall enter into force on the first day of the third month following the signature without reservation, or deposit, by that State or organization, of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
The provisions of this Agreement shall not be subject to general reservations. However, a specific reservation may be entered by any State or regional economic integration organization on signature without reservation in respect of ratification, acceptance or approval or, as the case may be, on depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession in respect of any species covered by the Agreement or any specific provision of the Action Plan. Such a reservation may be withdrawn at any time by the State or regional economic integration organisation which had entered it, by notification in writing to the Depositary; such a State or organization shall not be bound by the provisions which are the object of the reservation until thirty days after the date on which the reservation has been withdrawn.
Any Party may denounce this Agreement by written notification to the Depositary at any time. The denunciation shall take effect twelve months after the date on which the Depositary has received the notification.
SDG Goals:
1. The original of this Agreement, in the Arabic, English, French and Russian languages, each version being equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands which shall be the Depositary. The Depositary shall transmit certified copies of these versions to all States and regional economic integration organizations referred to in Article XIII, paragraph 1, of this Agreement, and to the Agreement secretariat after it has been established.
2. As soon as this Agreement enters into force, a certified copy thereof shall be transmitted by the Depositary to the Secretariat of the United Nations for registration and publication in accordance with Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.
3. The Depositary shall inform all States and regional economic integration organizations that have signed or acceded to the Agreement, and the Agreement secretariat, of:
(a) any signature;
(b) any deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession;
(c) the date of entry into force of this Agreement and of any additional annex as well as of any amendment to the Agreement or to its annexes;
(d) any reservation with respect to an additional annex or to an amendment to an annex;
(e) any notification of withdrawal of a reservation; and
(f) any notification of denunciation of the Agreement
The Depositary shall transmit to all States and regional economic integration organizations that have signed or acceded to this Agreement, and to the Agreement secretariat, the text of any reservation, of any additional annex and of any amendment to the Agreement or to its annexes.
In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly authorized to that effect, have signed this Agreement.

The boundary of the Agreement area isdefined asfollows: from the North Pole south along the 130oW line of longitude to 75oN; thence east and southeast through Viscount Melville Sound, Prince Regent Inlet, the Gulf of Boothia, Foxe Basin, Foxe Channel and Hudson Strait to a point in the northwest Atlantic at 60oN, 60oW; thence southeast through the northwest Atlantic to a point at 50oN, 30oW; thence south along the 30oW line of longitude to 10oN; thence southeast to the Equator at 20oW; thence south along the 20oW line of longitude to 40oS; thence east along the 40oS line of latitude to 60oE; thence north along the 60oE line of longitude to 35oN; thence east-northeast on a great circle to a point in the western Altai at 49oN, 87o27'E; thence northeast on a great circle to the coast of the Arctic Ocean at 130oE; thence north along the 130oE line of longitude to the North Pole. The outline of the Agreement Area is illustrated on the following map.

 

 

Map of the Agreement Area

(As adopted at the fourth Session of the Meeting of the Parties, which took place from 15 - 19 September 2008, Antananarivo, Madagascar.)

 

SPHENISCIDAE

 

Spheniscus demersus                           African Penguin

 

GAVIIDAE

 

Gavia stellata                                    Red‑throated Diver

Gavia arctica                                     Black-throated Diver

Gavia immer                                     Great Northern Diver

Gavia adamsii                                   White‑billed Diver

         

PODICIPEDIDAE

         

Tachybaptus ruficollis                         Little Grebe

Podiceps cristatus                             Great Crested Grebe   

Podiceps grisegena                            Red‑necked Grebe

Podiceps auritus                               Slavonian Grebe

Podiceps nigricollis                            Black-necked Grebe

 

PHAETHONTIDAE

 

Phaethon aetheras                             Red-billed Tropicbird

Phaethon rubricauda                           Red-tailed Tropicbird

Phaethon lepturus                              White-tailed Tropicbird

         

PELECANIDAE

         

Pelecanus onocrotalus                         Great White Pelican

Pelecanus rufescens                            Pink-backed Pelican

Pelecanus crispus                               Dalmatian Pelican

         

SULIDAE

 

Sula (Morus) bassana                         Northern Gannet

Sula (Morus) capensis                        Cape Gannet

Sula dactylatra                                  Masked Booby

 

PHALACROCORACIDAE

         

Phalacrocorax coronatus                      Crowned Cormorant

Phalacrocorax pygmeus                       Pygmy Cormorant

Phalacrocorax neglectus                      Bank Cormorant

Phalacrocorax carbo                           Great Cormorant

Phalacrocorax nigrogularis                   Socotra Cormorant

Phalacrocorax capensis                       Cape Cormorant

 

FREGATIDAE

 

Fregata minor                                     Great Frigatebird

Fregata ariel                                       Lesser Frigatebird       

 

ARDEIDAE

         

Egretta ardesiaca                                 Black Heron

Egretta vinaceigula                               Slaty Egret

Egretta garzetta                                   Little Egret

Egretta gularis                                    Western Reef Egret

Egretta dimorpha                                 Mascarene Reef Egret

Ardea cinerea                                     Grey Heron

Ardea melanocephala                           Black-headed Heron

Ardea purpurea                                   Purple Heron

Casmerodius albus                              Great Egret

Mesophoyx intermedia                          Intermediate Egret

Bubulcus ibis                                      Cattle Egret

Ardeola ralloides                                 Squacco Heron

Ardeola idae                                       Madagascar Pond‑Heron

Ardeola rufiventris                               Rufous‑bellied Heron

Nycticorax nycticorax                            Black-crowned Night-Heron

Ixobrychus minutus                              Little Bittern

Ixobrychus sturmii                               Dwarf Bittern

Botaurus stellaris                                 Great Bittern

         

CICONIIDAE

 

Mycteria ibis                                       Yellow‑billed Stork

Anastomus lamelligerus                        African Openbill

Ciconia nigra                                       Black Stork

Ciconia abdimii                                    Abdim’s Stork

Ciconia episcopus                                 Woolly‑necked Stork

Ciconia ciconia                                     White Stork

Leptoptilos crumeniferus                        Marabou Stork

         

BALAENICIPITIDAE

 

Balaeniceps rex                                   Shoebill

 

THRESKIORNITHIDAE

         

Plegadis falcinellus                              Glossy Ibis

Geronticus eremita                              Northern Bald Ibis

Threskiornis aethiopicus                        Sacred Ibis

Platalea leucorodia                               Eurasian Spoonbill

Platalea alba                                       African Spoonbill

PHOENICOPTERIDAE

         

Phoenicopterus ruber                            Greater Flamingo

Phoenicopterus minor                           Lesser Flamingo

 

ANATIDAE

 

Dendrocygna bi                           Fulvous Whistling‑Duck

Dendrocygna viduata                           White‑faced Whistling‑Duck

Thalassornis leuconotus                       White‑backed Duck

Oxyura leucocephala                           White‑headed Duck

Oxyura maccoa                                  Maccoa Duck

Cygnus olor                                      Mute Swan

Cygnus cygnus                                  Whooper Swan

Cygnus columbianus                           Bewick's Swan

Anser brachyrhynchus                         Pink‑footed Goose

Anser fabalis                                    Bean Goose

Anser albifrons                                  Greater White‑fronted Goose

Anser erythropus                                Lesser White‑fronted Goose

Anser anser                                      Greylag Goose

Branta leucopsis                                 Barnacle Goose

Branta bernicla                                   Brent Goose

Branta ruficollis                                  Red‑breasted Goose

Alopochen aegyptiacus                         Egyptian Goose

Tadorna ferruginea                              Ruddy Shelduck

Tadorna cana                                     South African Shelduck

Tadorna tadorna                                 Common Shelduck

Plectropterus gambensis                      Spur‑winged Goose

Sarkidiornis melanotos                        Comb Duck

Nettapus auritus                                African Pygmy‑goose

Anas penelope                                   Eurasian Wigeon

Anas strepera                                    Gadwall

Anas crecca                                       Common Teal

Anas capensis                                    CapeTeal

Anas platyrhynchos                              Mallard

Anas undulata                                     Yellow‑billed Duck

Anas acuta                                         Northern Pintail

Anas erythrorhyncha                             Red‑billed Duck

Anas hottentota                                   Hottentot Teal

Anas querquedula                                 Garganey

Anas clypeata                                      Northern Shoveler

Marmaronetta angustirostris                   Marbled Teal

Netta rufina                                        Red‑crested Pochard

Netta erythrophthalma                          Southern Pochard

Aythya ferina                                      Common Pochard

Aythya nyroca                                     Ferruginous Pochard

Aythya fuligula                                    Tufted Duck

Aythya marila                                      Greater Scaup

Somateria mollissima                           Common Eider

Somateria spectabilis                           King Eider

Polysticta stelleri                                 Steller's Eider

Clangula hyemalis                                Long‑tailed Duck

Melanitta nigra                                    Common Scoter

Melanitta fusca                                    Velvet Scoter

Bucephala clangula                               Common Goldeneye

Mergellus albellus                                Smew

Mergus serrator                                   Red‑breasted Merganser

Mergus merganser                                Goosander

 

GRUIDAE

         

Balearica pavonina                               Black Crowned Crane

Balearica regulorum                              Grey Crowned Crane

Grus leucogeranus                                Siberian Crane

Grus virgo                                           Demoiselle Crane

Grus paradisea                                    Blue Crane

Grus carunculatus                                 Wattled Crane

Grus grus                                           Common Crane

 

RALLIDAE

 

Sarothrura elegans                                 Buff-spotted Flufftail

Sarothrura boehmi                                  Streaky‑breasted Flufftail

Sarothrura ayresi                                   White-winged Flufftail

Rallus aquaticus                                     Water Rail

Rallus caerulescens                                African Rail

Crecopsis egregia                                  African Crake

Crex crex                                             Corncrake

Amaurornis flavirostris                            Black Crake

Porzana parva                                       Little Crake

Porzana pusilla                                     Baillon's Crake

Porzana porzana                                   Spotted Crake

Aenigmatolimnas marginalis                   Striped Crake

Porphyrio alleni                                    Allen’s Gallinule

Gallinula chloropus                               Common Moorhen

Gallinula angulata                                Lesser Moorhen

Fulica cristata                                     Red-knobbed Coot

Fulica atra                                          Common Coot

         

DROMADIDAE

         

Dromas ardeola                                  Crab Plover

         

HAEMATOPODIDAE

 

Haematopus ostralegus                        Eurasian Oystercatcher

Haematopus moquini                           African Black Oystercatcher

 

RECURVIROSTRIDAE

         

Himantopus himantopus                       Black-winged Stilt

Recurvirostra avosetta                         Pied Avocet

 

BURHINIDAE

 

Burhinus senegalensis                         Senegal Thick-knee

 

 

GLAREOLIDAE

         

Pluvianus aegyptius                            Egyptian Plover

Glareola pratincola                             Collared Pratincole

Glareola nordmanni                            Black‑winged Pratincole

Glareola ocularis                                Madagascar Pratincole

Glareola nuchalis                                Rock Pratincole

Glareola cinerea                                 Grey Pratincole

 

CHARADRIIDAE

         

Pluvialis apricaria                               Eurasian Golden Plover

Pluvialis fulva                                    Pacific Golden Plover

Pluvialis squatarola                             Grey Plover

Charadrius hiaticula                             Common Ringed Plover

Charadrius dubius                               Little Ringed Plover

Charadrius pecuarius                           Kittlitz's Plover

Charadrius tricollaris                          Three‑banded Plover

Charadrius forbesi                              Forbes's Plover

Charadrius pallidus                             Chestnut‑banded Plover

Charadrius alexandrinus                       Kentish Plover

Charadrius marginatus                          White‑fronted Plover

Charadrius mongolus                          Mongolian Plover

Charadrius leschenaultii                       Greater Sandplover

Charadrius asiaticus                           Caspian Plover

Eudromias morinellus                          Eurasian Dotterel

Vanellus vanellus                               Northern Lapwing

Vanellus spinosus                              Spur‑winged Plover

Vanellus albiceps                               White‑headed Lapwing

Vanellus senegallus                            Wattled Lapwing

Vanellus lugubris                               Senegal Lapwing

Vanellus melanopterus                        Black‑winged Lapwing

Vanellus coronatus                             Crowned Lapwing

Vanellus superciliosus                         Brown‑chested Lapwing

Vanellus gregarius                              Sociable Plover

Vanellus leucurus                               White‑tailed Plover

         

SCOLOPACIDAE

         

Scolopax rusticola                              Eurasian Woodcock

Gallinago stenura                               Pintail Snipe

Gallinago media                                Great Snipe

Gallinago gallinago                            Common Snipe

Lymnocryptes minimus                       Jack Snipe

Limosa limosa                                   Black‑tailed Godwit

Limosa lapponica                                Bar‑tailed Godwit

Numenius phaeopus                            Whimbrel

Numenius tenuirostris                          Slender‑billed Curlew

Numenius arquata                               Eurasian Curlew

Tringa erythropus                                Spotted Redshank

Tringa totanus                                    Common Redshank

Tringa stagnatilis                                Marsh Sandpiper

Tringa nebularia                                 Common Greenshank

Tringa ochropus                                 Green Sandpiper

Tringa glareola                                  Wood Sandpiper

Tringa cinerea                                   Terek Sandpiper

Tringa hypoleucos                              Common Sandpiper

Arenaria interpres                              Ruddy Turnstone

Calidris tenuirostris                            Great Knot

Calidris canutus                                Red Knot

Calidris alba                                     Sanderling

Calidris minuta                                 Little Stint

Calidris temminckii                            Temminck's Stint

Calidris maritima                               Purple Sandpiper

Calidris alpina                                   Dunlin

Calidris ferruginea                              Curlew Sandpiper

Limicola falcinellus                             Broad‑billed Sandpiper

Philomachus pugnax                           Ruff

Phalaropus lobatus                             Red‑necked Phalarope

Phalaropus fulicaria                            Grey Phalarope

 

STERCORARIIDAE

 

Catharacta skua                               Great Skua

Stercorarius longicaudus                    Long-tailed Skua

         

LARIDAE

         

Larus leucophthalmus                         White-eyed Gull

Larus hemprichii                                Sooty Gull

Larus canus                                      Common Gull

Larus audouinii                                  Audouin's Gull

Larus marinus                                    Great Black-backed Gull

Larus dominicanus                              Kelp Gull

Larus hyperboreus                              Glaucous Gull

Larus glaucoides                                Iceland Gull

Larus argentatus                                Herring Gull

Larus heuglini                                    Heuglin’s Gull

Larus armenicus                                 Armenian Gull

Larus cachinnans                                Yellow-legged Gull

Larus fuscus                                     Lesser Black-backed Gull

Larus ichthyaetus                               Great Black‑headed Gull

Larus cirrocephalus                             Grey-headed Gull

Larus hartlaubii                                  Hartlaub’s Gull

Larus ridibundus                                 Common Black-headed Gull

Larus genei                                       Slender‑billed Gull

Larus melanocephalus                        Mediterranean Gull

Larus minutus                                  Little Gull

Xema sabini                                     Sabine’s Gull

Rissa tridactyla                                 Black-legged Kittiwake

 

STERNIDAE

 

Sterna nilotica                                     Gull‑billed Tern

Sterna caspia                                      Caspian Tern

Sterna maxima                                    Royal Tern

Sterna bengalensis                               Lesser Crested Tern

Sterna bergii                                       Great Crested Tern

Sterna sandvicensis                              Sandwich Tern

Sterna dougallii                                   Roseate Tern

Sterna vittata                                     Antarctic Tern

Sterna hirundo                                    Common Tern

Sterna paradisaea                               Arctic Tern

Sterna albifrons                                  Little Tern

Sterna saundersi                                 Saunders's Tern

Sterna balaenarum                              Damara Tern

Sterna repressa                                 White‑cheeked Tern

Sterna anaethetus                              Bridled Tern

Sterna fuscata                                   Sooty Tern

Chlidonias hybridus                            Whiskered Tern

Chlidonias leucopterus                        White‑winged Tern

Chlidonias niger                                 Black Tern

Anous stolidus                                   Brown Noddy

Anous tenuirostris                              Lesser Noddy

 

RYNCHOPIDAE

 

Rynchops flavirostris                           African Skimmer

 

ALCIDAE

 

Alle alle                                           Little Auk

Uria aalge                                        Common Guillemot

Uria lomvia                                       Brunnich’s Guillemot

Alca torda                                         Razorbill

Cepphus grylle                                   Black Guillemot

Fratercula arctica                                Atlantic Puffin