Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds

Preamble

THE CONTRACTING PARTIES,  
RECALLING further that the first meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention, held in Bonn in October 1985, instructed the Secretariat of the Convention to take appropriate measures to develop an Agreement on Western Palearctic Anatidae; international cooperation, synergy
RECALLING further that the first meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention, held in Bonn in October 1985, instructed the Secretariat of the Convention to take appropriate measures to develop an Agreement on Western Palearctic Anatidae;  
CONSIDERING that migratory waterbirds constitute an important part of the global biological diversity which, in keeping with the spirit of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992, and Agenda 21 should be conserved for the benefit of present and future generations; intergenerational equity
AWARE of the economic, social, cultural and recreational benefits accruing from the taking of certain species of migratory waterbirds and of the environmental, ecological, genetic, scientific, aesthetic, recreational, cultural, educational, social and economic values of waterbirds in general; cultural heritage
CONVINCED that any taking of migratory waterbirds must be conducted on a sustainable basis, taking into account the conservation status of the species concerned over their entire range as well as their biological characteristics; hunting
CONSCIOUS that migratory waterbirds are particularly vulnerable because they migrate over long distances and are dependent on networks of wetlands that are decreasing in extent and becoming degraded through non sustainable human activities, as is expressed in the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat, 1971; synergy
RECOGNIZING the need to take immediate action to stop the decline of migratory waterbird species and their habitats in the geographic area of the African Eurasian waterbird migration systems;  
CONVINCED that the conclusion of a multilateral Agreement and its implementation through coordinated or concerted action will contribute significantly to the conservation of migratory waterbirds and their habitats in the most efficient manner, and will have ancillary benefits for many other species of animals and plants; and  
ACKNOWLEDGING that effective implementation of such an Agreement will require assistance to be provided to some Range States for research, training and monitoring of migratory waterbird species and their habitats, for the management of those habitats as well as for the establishment or improvement of scientific and administrative institutions for the implementation of this Agreement: capacity building, technology transfer
HAVE AGREED AS FOLLOWS:  

ARTICLE I Scope, Definitions and Interpretation

1. The geographic scope of this Agreement is the area of the migration systems of African Eurasian waterbirds, as defined in Annex 1 to this Agreement, hereafter referred to as the "Agreement Area".  
2. For the purpose of this Agreement:  
(a) "Convention" means the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, 1979; synergy
(b) "Convention Secretariat" means the body established under Article IX of the Convention; secretariat
(c) "Oiseaux d'eau" signifie les espèces d'oiseaux qui dépendent écologiquement des zones humides pendant une partie au moins de leur cycle annuel, qui ont une aire de répartition située entièrement ou partiellement dans la zone de l'Accord, et qui figurent à l'Annexe 2 du présent Accord ; migratory species, waterbird
(d) "Agreement secretariat" means the body established under Article VI, paragraph 7, subparagraph (b), of this Agreement;  
(e) "Parties" means, unless the context otherwise indicates, Parties to this Agreement; and  
(f) "Parties present and voting" means the Parties present and casting an affirmative or negative vote; those abstaining from voting shall not be counted amongst the Parties present and voting. voting
In addition, the terms defined in Article I, subparagraphs 1(a) to (k), of the Convention shall have the same meaning, mutatis mutandis, in this Agreement.  
3. This Agreement is an AGREEMENT within the meaning of Article IV, paragraph 3, of the Convention.  
4. The annexes to this Agreement form an integral part thereof. Any reference to the Agreement includes a reference to its annexes.  

ARTICLE II Fundamental Principles

1. Parties shall take co ordinated measures to maintain migratory waterbird species in a favourable conservation status or to restore them to such a status. To this end, they shall apply within the limits of their national jurisdiction the measures prescribed in Article III, together with the specific actions determined in the Action Plan provided for in Article IV, of this Agreement. national strategy
2.In implementing the measures prescribed in paragraph 1 above, Parties should take into account the precautionary principle. precautionary principle

ARTICLE III General Conservation Measures

1. The Parties shall take measures to conserve migratory waterbirds, giving special attention to endangered species as well as to those with an unfavourable conservation status. endangered species
2. To this end, the Parties shall:  
(a) accord the same strict protection for endangered migratory waterbird species in the Agreement Area as is provided for under Article III, paragraphs 4 and 5, of the Convention;  
(b) ensure that any use of migratory waterbirds is based on an assessment of the best available knowledge of their ecology and is sustainable for the species as well as for the ecological systems that support them; best practice, technology transfer
(c) identify sites and habitats for migratory waterbirds occurring within their territory and encourage the protection, management, rehabilitation and restoration of these sites, in liaison with those bodies listed in Article IX, paragraphs (a) and (b) of this Agreement, concerned with habitat conservation; protected area
(d) coordinate their efforts to ensure that a network of suitable habitats is maintained or, where appropriate, re established throughout the entire range of each migratory waterbird species concerned, in particular where wetlands extend over the area of more than one Party to this Agreement; international cooperation, range state
(e) investigate problems that are posed or are likely to be posed by human activities and endeavour to implement remedial measures, including habitat rehabilitation and restoration, and compensatory measures for loss of habitat; environmental impact assessment
(f) cooperate in emergency situations requiring international concerted action and in identifying the species of migratory waterbirds which are the most vulnerable to these situations as well as cooperate in developing appropriate emergency procedures to provide increased protection to these species in such situations and in the preparation of guidelines to assist individual Parties in tackling these situations; disaster, international cooperation
(g) prohibit the deliberate introduction of non native waterbird species into the environment and take all appropriate measures to prevent the unintentional release of such species if this introduction or release would prejudice the conservation status of wild flora and fauna; when non native waterbird species have already been introduced, the Parties shall take all appropriate measures to prevent these species from becoming a potential threat to indigenous species; alien species, invasive species
(h) initiate or support research into the biology and ecology of migratory waterbirds including the harmonization of research and monitoring methods and, where appropriate, the establishment of joint or cooperative research and monitoring programmes; monitoring, evaluation, science, subsidiary body, advisory body
(i) analyze their training requirements for, inter alia, migratory waterbird surveys, monitoring, ringing and wetland management to identify priority topics and areas for training and cooperate in the development and provision of appropriate training programmes; capacity building
(j) develop and maintain programmes to raise awareness and understanding of migratory waterbird conservation issues in general and of the particular objectives and provisions of this Agreement; public awareness
(k) exchange information and results from research, monitoring, conservation and education programmes; and access to information
(l) cooperate with a view to assisting each other to implement this Agreement, particularly in the areas of research and monitoring. subsidiary body, advisory body, science

ARTICLE IV Action Plan and Conservation Guidelines

1. An Action Plan is appended as Annex 3 to this Agreement. It specifies actions which the Parties shall undertake in relation to priority species and issues, under the following headings, consistent with the general conservation measures specified in Article III of this Agreement: annex, national strategy
(a) species conservation; species
(b) habitat conservation; habitat
(c) management of human activities;  
(d) research and monitoring; science
(e) education and information; and capacity building
(f) implementation. implementation
2. The Action Plan shall be reviewed at each ordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties, taking into account the Conservation Guidelines.  
3. Any amendment to the Action Plan shall be adopted by the Meeting of the Parties, taking into consideration the provisions of Article III of this Agreement. amendment procedure
4. The Conservation Guidelines shall be submitted to the Meeting of the Parties for adoption at its first session, and shall be regularly reviewed. best practice

ARTICLE V Implementation and Financing

1. Each Party shall:  
(a) designate the Authority or Authorities to implement this Agreement which shall, inter alia, monitor all activities that may have impact on the conservation status of those migratory waterbird species of which the Party is a Range State; national focal point
(b) designate a contact point for the other Parties, and communicate without delay its name and address to the Agreement secretariat to be circulated forthwith to the other Parties; and national focal point
(c) prepare for each ordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties, beginning with the second session, a report on its implementation of the Agreement with particular reference to the conservation measures it has undertaken. The format of such reports shall be determined by the first session of the Meeting of the Parties and reviewed as may be necessary at any subsequent session of the Meeting of the Parties. national report
Each Party shall:  
2 (a)Each Party shall contribute to the budget of the Agreement in accordance with the United Nations scale of assessment. The contributions shall be restricted to a maximum of 25 per cent of the total budget for any Party that is a Range State. No regional economic integration organization shall be required to contribute more than 2.5 per cent of the administrative costs. budget, secretariat
(b) Decisions relating to the budget and any changes to the scale of assessment that may be found necessary shall be adopted by the Meeting of the Parties by consensus. budget, secretariat
3. The Meeting of the Parties may establish a conservation fund from voluntary contributions of Parties or from any other source for the purpose of financing monitoring, research, training and projects relating to the conservation, including protection and management, of migratory waterbirds. financial mechanism, budget, fund
4. Parties are encouraged to provide training and technical and financial support to other Parties on a multilateral or bilateral basis to assist them in implementing the provisions of this Agreement. capacity building

ARTICLE VI Meeting of the Parties

1. The Meeting of the Parties shall be the decision-making body of this Agreement. governing body
2. The Depositary shall, in consultation with the Convention Secretariat, convene a session of the Meeting of the Parties not later than one year after the date of the entry into force of this Agreement. Thereafter, the Agreement secretariat shall convene, in consultation with the Convention Secretariat, ordinary sessions of the Meeting of the Parties at intervals of not more than three years, unless the Meeting of the Parties decides otherwise.  
3. On the written request of at least one third of the Parties, the Agreement secretariat shall convene an extraordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties. Conference of the Parties
4. The United Nations, its Specialized Agencies, the International Atomic Energy Agency, any State not a Party to the Agreement, and the secretariats of international conventions concerned inter alia with the conservation, including protection and management, of migratory waterbirds may be represented by observers in sessions of the Meeting of the Parties. observer
5. Only Parties have the right to vote. Each Party shall have one vote, but regional economic integration organizations which are Parties to this Agreement shall, in matters within their competence, exercise their right to vote with a number of votes equal to the number of their Member States which are Parties to the Agreement. A regional economic integration organization shall not exercise its right to vote if its Member States exercise theirs, and vice versa. voting
6. Unless provided otherwise in this Agreement, decisions of the Meeting of the Parties shall be adopted by consensus or, if consensus cannot be achieved, by a two-thirds majority of the Parties present and voting. decision
7. At its first session, the Meeting of the Parties shall:  
(a) adopt its rules of procedure by consensus; Rules of Procedure
(b) establish an Agreement secretariat within the Convention Secretariat to perform the secretariat functions listed in Article VIII of this Agreement; secretariat
(c) establish the Technical Committee provided for in Article VII of this Agreement; subsidiary body
(d) adopt a format for the reports to be prepared according to Article V, paragraph 1, subparagraph (c), of this Agreement; and national report
(e) adopt criteria to define emergency situations which require urgent conservation measures, and determine the modalities for assigning responsibility for action to be taken. disaster
8. At each of its ordinary sessions, the Meeting of the Parties shall:  
(a) consider actual and potential changes in the conservation status of migratory waterbirds and the habitats important for their survival, as well as the factors which may affect them;  
(b) review the progress made and any difficulty encountered in the implementation of this Agreement; implementation
(c) adopt a budget and consider any matters relating to the financial arrangements for this Agreement; budget, secretariat
(d) deal with any matter relating to the Agreement secretariat and the membership of the Technical Committee;  
(e) adopt a report for communication to the Parties to this Agreement and to the Conference of the Parties of the Convention; and  
(f) determine the time and venue of the next session.  
9. At any of its sessions, the Meeting of the Parties may:  
(a) make recommendations to the Parties as it deems necessary or appropriate; recommendation
(b) adopt specific actions to improve the effectiveness of this Agreement and, as the case may be, emergency measures as provided for in Article VII, paragraph 4, of this Agreement; evaluation
(c) consider and decide upon proposals to amend this Agreement; amendment procedure
(d) amend the Action Plan in accordance with Article IV, paragraph 3, of this Agreement; annex, amendment
(e) establish such subsidiary bodies as it deems necessary to assist in the implementation of this Agreement, in particular for coordination with bodies established under other international treaties, conventions and agreements with overlapping geographic and taxonomic coverage; and subsidiary body
(f) decide on any other matter relating to the implementation of this Agreement. subsidiary body

ARTICLE VII Technical Committee

1. The Technical Committee shall comprise:  
(a) nine experts representing different regions of the Agreement Area, in accordance with a balanced geographical distribution;  
(b) one representative from the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), one from the International Waterfowl and Wetlands Research Bureau (IWRB) and one from the International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation (CIC); and synergy
(c) one expert from each of the following fields: rural economics, game management, and environmental law. advisory body
The procedure for the appointment of the experts, the term of their appointment and the procedure for designation of the Chairman of the Technical Committee shall be determined by the Meeting of the Parties. The Chairman may admit a maximum of four observers from specialized international inter-governmental and non governmental organizations. advisory body, observer
2. Unless the Meeting of the Parties decides otherwise, meetings of the Technical Committee shall be convened by the Agreement secretariat in conjunction with each ordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties and at least once between ordinary sessions of the Meeting of the Parties.  
3. The Technical Committee shall:  
(a) provide scientific and technical advice and information to the Meeting of the Parties and, through the Agreement secretariat, to Parties;  
(b) make recommendations to the Meeting of the Parties concerning the Action Plan, implementation of the Agreement and further research to be carried out;  
(c) prepare for each ordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties a report on its activities, which shall be submitted to the Agreement secretariat not less than one hundred and twenty days before the session of the Meeting of the Parties, and copies shall be circulated forthwith by the Agreement secretariat to the Parties; and  
(d) carry out any other tasks referred to it by the Meeting of the Parties.  
4. Where in the opinion of the Technical Committee there has arisen an emergency which requires the adoption of immediate measures to avoid deterioration of the conservation status of one or more migratory waterbird species, the Technical Committee may request the Agreement secretariat to convene urgently a meeting of the Parties concerned. These Parties shall meet as soon as possible thereafter to establish rapidly a mechanism to give protection to the species identified as being subject to particularly adverse threat. disaster
5. The Technical Committee may establish such working groups as may be necessary to deal with specific tasks.  

ARTICLE VIII Agreement Secretariat

The functions of the Agreement secretariat shall be:  
(a) to arrange and service the sessions of the Meeting of the Parties as well as the meetings of the Technical Committee;  
(b) to execute the decisions addressed to it by the Meeting of the Parties;  
(c) to promote and coordinate activities under the Agreement, including the Action Plan, in accordance with decisions of the Meeting of the Parties;  
(d) to liaise with non Party Range States and to facilitate coordination between the Parties and with international and national organizations, the activities of which are directly or indirectly relevant to the conservation, including protection and management, of migratory waterbirds; non-party, range state
(e) to gather and evaluate information which will further the objectives and implementation of the Agreement and to arrange for appropriate dissemination of such information; access to information
(f) to invite the attention of the Meeting of the Parties to matters pertaining to the objectives of this Agreement;  
to gather and evaluate information which will further the objectives and implementation of the Agreement and to arrange for appropriate dissemination of such information;  
(g) to circulate copies of the reports of the Authorities referred to in Article V, paragraph 1, subparagraph (a), of this Agreement and of the Technical Committee, along with copies of the reports it must provide pursuant to paragraph (h) of this Article, to each Party not less than sixty days before the commencement of each ordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties;  
(h) to prepare, on an annual basis and for each ordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties, reports on the work of the secretariat and on the implementation of the Agreement;  
(i) to administer the budget for the Agreement and, if established, its conservation fund; budget, secretariat
(j) to provide information for the general public concerning the Agreement and its objectives; and access to information, access to justice, public participation, public awareness
(k) to perform such other functions as may be entrusted to it under the Agreement or by the Meeting of the Parties.  

ARTICLE IX Relations with International Bodies dealing with Migratory Waterbirds and their Habitats

The Agreement secretariat shall consult:  
(a) on a regular basis, the Convention Secretariat and, where appropriate, the bodies responsible for the secretariat functions under Agreements concluded pursuant to Article IV, paragraphs 3 and 4, of the Convention which are relevant to migratory waterbirds, the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat, 1971, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, 1973, the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 1968, the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural  
(b) the secretariats of other pertinent conventions and international instruments in respect of matters of common interest; and  
(c) other organizations competent in the field of conservation, including protection and management, of migratory waterbirds and their habitats, as well as in the fields of research, education and awareness raising.  

ARTICLE X Amendment of the Agreement

1. This Agreement may be amended at any ordinary or extraordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties.  
2. Proposals for amendment may be made by any Party.  
3. The text of any proposed amendment and the reasons for it shall be communicated to the Agreement secretariat not less than one hundred and fifty days before the opening of the session. The Agreement secretariat shall transmit copies forthwith to the Parties. Any comments on the text by the Parties shall be communicated to the Agreement secretariat not less than sixty days before the opening of the session. The Secretariat shall, as soon as possible after the last day for submission of comments, communicate to the Parties all comments submitted by that day.  
4. An amendment to the Agreement other than an amendment to its annexes shall be adopted by a two-thirds majority of the Parties present and voting and shall enter into force for those Parties which have accepted it on the thirtieth day after the date on which two thirds of the Parties to the Agreement at the date of the adoption of the amendment have deposited their instruments of acceptance of the amendment with the Depositary.  
5. Any additional annexes and any amendment to an annex shall be adopted by a two thirds majority of the Parties present and voting and shall enter into force for all Parties on the ninetieth day after the date of its adoption by the Meeting of the Parties, except for Parties which have entered a reservation in accordance with paragraph 6 of this Article. annex, amendment
6. During the period of ninety days provided for in paragraph 5 of this Article, any Party may by written notification to the Depositary enter a reservation with respect to an additional annex or an amendment to an annex. Such reservation may be withdrawn at any time by written notification to the Depositary, and thereupon the additional annex or the amendment shall enter into force for that Party on the thirtieth day after the date of withdrawal of the reservation.  

ARTICLE XI Effect of this Agreement on International Conventions and Legislation

1. The provisions of this Agreement do not affect the rights and obligations of any Party deriving from existing international treaties, conventions or agreements.  
2. The provisions of this Agreement shall in no way affect the right of any Party to maintain or adopt stricter measures for the conservation of migratory waterbirds and their habitats. implementation

ARTICLE XII Settlement of Disputes

1. Any dispute which may arise between two or more Parties with respect to the interpretation or application of the provisions of this Agreement shall be subject to negotiation between the Parties involved in the dispute.  
2. If the dispute cannot be resolved in accordance with paragraph 1 of this Article, the Parties may, by mutual consent, submit the dispute to arbitration, in particular that of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague, and the Parties submitting the dispute shall be bound by the arbitral decision.  

ARTICLE XIII Signature, Ratification, Acceptance, Approval, Accession

1. This Agreement shall be open for signature by any Range State, whether or not areas under its jurisdiction lie within the Agreement Area, or regional economic integration organization, at least one member of which is a Range State, either by:  
(a) signature without reservation in respect of ratification, acceptance or approval; or  
(b) signature with reservation in respect of ratification, acceptance or approval, followed by ratification, acceptance or approval.  
2. This Agreement shall remain open for signature at The Hague until the date of its entry into force.  
3. This Agreement shall be open for accession by any Range State or regional economic integration organization mentioned in paragraph 1 above on and after the date of entry into force of the Agreement.  
4. Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited with the Depositary.  

ARTICLE XIV Entry into Force

1. This Agreement shall enter into force on the first day of the third month after at least fourteen Range States or regional economic integration organizations, comprising at least seven from Africa and seven from Eurasia, have signed without reservation in respect of ratification, acceptance or approval, or have deposited their instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval in accordance with Article XIII of this Agreement.  
2. For any Range State or regional economic integration organization which has:  
(a) signed without reservation in respect of ratification, acceptance, or approval;  
(b) ratified, accepted, or approved; or  
(c) acceded to  
this Agreement after the date on which the number of Range States and regional economic integration organizations necessary to enable entry into force have signed it without reservation or have ratified, accepted or approved it, this Agreement shall enter into force on the first day of the third month following the signature without reservation, or deposit, by that State or organization, of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.  

ARTICLE XV Reservations

The provisions of this Agreement shall not be subject to general reservations. However, a specific reservation may be entered by any State or regional economic integration organization on signature without reservation in respect of ratification, acceptance or approval or, as the case may be, on depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession in respect of any species covered by the Agreement or any specific provision of the Action Plan.  

ARTICLE XVI Denunciation

Any Party may denounce this Agreement by written notification to the Depositary at any time. The denunciation shall take effect twelve months after the date on which the Depositary has received the notification.  

ARTICLE XVII Depositary

1. The original of this Agreement, in the Arabic, English, French and Russian languages, each version being equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands which shall be the Depositary. The Depositary shall transmit certified copies of these versions to all States and regional economic integration organizations referred to in Article XIII, paragraph 1, of this Agreement, and to the Agreement secretariat after it has been established.  
2. As soon as this Agreement enters into force, a certified copy thereof shall be transmitted by the Depositary to the Secretariat of the United Nations for registration and publication in accordance with Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.  
3. The Depositary shall inform all States and regional economic integration organizations that have signed or acceded to the Agreement, and the Agreement secretariat, of:  
(a) any signature;  
(b) any deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession;  
(c) the date of entry into force of this Agreement and of any additional annex as well as of any amendment to the Agreement or to its annexes;  
(d) any reservation with respect to an additional annex or to an amendment to an annex;  
(e) any notification of withdrawal of a reservation; and  
(f) any notification of denunciation of the Agreement  
The Depositary shall transmit to all States and regional economic integration organizations that have signed or acceded to this Agreement, and to the Agreement secretariat, the text of any reservation, of any additional annex and of any amendment to the Agreement or to its annexes.  
In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly authorized to that effect, have signed this Agreement.  

Annex I Definition of the Agreement Area

The boundary of the Agreement area isdefined asfollows: from the North Pole south along the 130oW line of longitude to 75oN; thence east and southeast through Viscount Melville Sound, Prince Regent Inlet, the Gulf of Boothia, Foxe Basin, Foxe Channel and Hudson Strait to a point in the northwest Atlantic at 60oN, 60oW; thence southeast through the northwest Atlantic to a point at 50oN, 30oW; thence south along the 30oW line of longitude to 10oN; thence southeast to the Equator at 20oW; thence  
 

Annex II Waterbird species to which the Agreement applies

(As adopted at the fourth Session of the Meeting of the Parties, which took place from 15 - 19 September 2008, Antananarivo, Madagascar.)   SPHENISCIDAE   Spheniscus demersus                           African Penguin   GAVIIDAE   Gavia stellata                                    Red‑throated Diver Gavia arctica                                     Black-throated Diver  

Annex III Action Plan

( As adopted at the fourth Session of the Meeting of the Parties, which took place from 15 - 19 September 2008, Antananarivo, Madagascar.)     1.         Field of Application   1.1       The Action Plan is applicable to the populations of migratory waterbirds listed in Table 1 to this Annex (hereafter referred to as"Table 1").   1.2       Table 1 forms an integral part of this Annex. Any reference to this Action Plan includes a reference to Table 1.   2.         Species Conservation   2.1       Legal measures   2.1.1    Parties with populations listed in column A of Table 1 shall provide protection to those populations listed in accordance with Article III, paragraph 2(a), of this Agreement. Such Parties shall in particular and subject to paragraph 2.1.3 below:               (a)   prohibit the taking of birds and eggs of those populations occurring in their territory;               (b)   prohibit deliberate disturbance in so far as such disturbance would be significant for the conservation of the population concerned; and               (c)   prohibit the possession or utilization of, and trade in, birds or eggs of those populations which have been taken in contravention of the prohibitions laid down pursuant to subparagraph (a) above, as well as the possession or utilization of, and trade in, any readily recognizable parts or derivatives of such birds and their eggs.               By way of exception for those populations listed in Categories2 and 3 in Column A only and which are marked by an asterisk, hunting may continue on a sustainable use basis where hunting of such populations is a long-established cultural practice. This sustainable use shall be conducted within the framework of special provisions of a species action plan at the appropriate international level.   2.1.2    Parties with populations listed in Table 1 shall regulate the taking of birds and eggs of all populations listed in column B of Table 1. The object of such legal measures shall be to maintain or contribute to the restoration of those populations to a favourable conservation status and to ensure, on the basis of the best available knowledge of population dynamics, that any taking or other use is sustainable.  Such legal measures, subject to paragraph 2.1.3 below, shall in particular:               (a)   prohibit the taking of birds belonging to the populations concerned during their various stages of reproduction and rearing and during their return to their breeding grounds if the taking hasan unfavourable impact on the conservation status of the population concerned;               (b)   regulate the modes of taking;               (c)   establish limits on taking, where appropriate, and provide adequate controls to ensure that these limits are observed; and               (d)   prohibit the possession or utilization of, and trade in, birds and eggs of the populations which have been taken in contravention of any prohibition laid down pursuant to the provisions of this paragraph, as well as the possession or utilization of, and trade in, any readily recognizable parts or derivatives of such birds and their eggs.   2.1.3    Parties may grant exemptions to the prohibitions laid down in paragraphs2.1.1 and 2.1.2, irrespective of the provisions of Article III, paragraph 5, of the Convention, where there is no other satisfactory solution, for the following purposes:               (a)   to prevent serious damage to crops, water and fisheries;               (b)   in the interest of airsafety or other overriding public interests;               (c)   for the purpose of research and education, of re-establishment and for the breeding necessary for these purposes;               (d)   to permit under strictly supervised conditions, on a selective basis and to a limited extent, the taking and keeping or other judicious use of certain birds in small numbers; and               (e)   for the purpose of enhancing the propagation or survival of the populations concerned.               Such exemptions shall be precise as to content and limited in space and time and shall not operate to the detriment of the populations listed in Table 1. Parties shall as soon as possible inform the Agreement secretariat of any exemptions granted pursuant to this provision.   2.2       Single Species Action Plans   2.2.1    Parties shall cooperate with a view to developing and implementing international single species action plans for populations listed in Category 1 of Column A of Table 1 as a priority and for those populations listed with an asterisk in Column A of Table 1. The Agreement secretariat shall coordinate the development, harmonization and implementation of such plans.   2.2.2    Partiesshall prepare and implement nationalsinglespeciesaction plansfor the populationslisted in Column A of Table 1 with a view to improving their overall conservationstatus. Thisaction planshall includespecial provisionsfor those populationsmarked with an asterisk. When appropriate, the problem of accidental killing of birdsby huntersasa result of incorrect identification of thespeciesshould be considered. 2.3       Emergency Measures               Partiesshall, in close cooperation with each other whenever possible and relevant, develop and implement emergency measuresfor populationslisted in Table 1, when exceptionally unfavourable or endangering conditionsoccur anywhere in the Agreement Area. 2.4     Re-establishments               Partiesshall exercise the greatest care when re-establishing populationslisted in Table 1 into partsof their traditional range where they no longer exist. Theyshall endeavour to develop and follow a detailed re-establishment plan based on appropriatescientificstudies. Re-establishment plansshould constitute an integral part of national and, where appropriate, internationalsinglespeciesaction plans. A re-establishment planshould include assessment of the impact on the environment andshall be made widely available. Partiesshall inform the Agreementsecretariat, in advance, of all re-establishment programme for populationslisted in Table 1.   2.5       Introductions   2.5.1    Partiesshall, if they consider it necessary, prohibit the introduction of non-nativespeciesof animalsand plantswhich may be detrimental to the populationslisted in Table 1.   2.5.2    Partiesshall, if they consider it necessary, require the taking of appropriate precautionsto avoid the accidental escape of captive birdsbelonging to non-nativespecies.   2.5.3    Partiesshall take measuresto the extent feasible and appropriate, including taking, to ensure that when non-nativespeciesor hybridsthereof have already been introduced into their territory, thosespeciesor their hybridsdo not pose a potential hazard to the populationslisted in Table 1.     3.           Habitat Conservation   3.1       Habitat Inventories   3.1.1    Parties, in liaison where appropriate with competent international organizations,shall undertake and publish national inventoriesof the habitatswithin their territory which are important to the populationslisted in Table 1.   3.1.2    Partiesshall endeavour, asa matter of priority, to identify allsitesof international or national importance for populationslisted in Table 1.   3.2       Conservation of Areas   3.2.1    Partiesshall endeavour to continue establishing protected areasto conserve habitatsimportant for the populationslisted in Table 1, and to develop and implement management plansfor these areas.   3.2.2    Partiesshall endeavour to givespecial protection to those wetlandswhich meet internationally accepted criteria of international importance.   3.2.3    Partiesshall endeavour to make wise and sustainable use of all of the wetlandsin their territory. In particular they shall endeavour to avoid degradation and lossof habitatsthat support populationslisted in Table 1 through the introduction of appropriate regulationsor standardsand control measures. In particular, they shall endeavour to:               (a)  ensure, where practicable, that adequatestatutory controlsare in place, relating to the use of agricultural chemicals, pest control proceduresand the disposal of waste water, which are in accordance with international norms, for the purpose of minimizing their adverse impactson the populationslisted in Table 1; and               (b)   prepare and distribute information materials, in the appropriate languages, describingsuch regulations,standardsand control measuresin force and their benefitsto people and wildlife.   3.2.4    Partiesshall endeavour to developstrategies, according to an ecosystem approach, for the conservation of the habitatsof all populationslisted in Table 1, including the habitatsof those populationsthat are dispersed.   3.3       Rehabilitation and Restoration               Partiesshall endeavour to rehabilitate or restore, where feasible and appropriate, areaswhich were previously important for the populationslisted in Table 1.     4.         Management of Human Activities   4.1       Hunting   4.1.1    Partiesshall cooperate to ensure that their hunting legislation implementsthe principle ofsustainable use asenvisaged in thisAction Plan, taking into account the full geographical range of the waterbird populationsconcerned and their life history characteristics.   4.1.2        The Agreementsecretariatshall be kept informed by the Partiesof their legislation relating to the hunting of populationslisted in Table 1.   4.1.3    Partiesshall cooperate with a view to developing a reliable and harmonizedsystem for the collection of harvest data in order to assessthe annual harvest of populationslisted in Table 1. Theyshall provide the Agreementsecretariat with estimatesof the total annual take for each population, when available.   4.1.4    Partiesshall endeavour to phase out the use of leadshot for hunting in wetlandsassoon aspossible in accordance withself-imposed and published timetables.   4.1.5    Partiesshall develop and implement measuresto reduce, and asfar aspossible eliminate, the use of poisoned baits.   4.1.6    Partiesshall develop and implement measuresto reduce, and asfar aspossible eliminate, illegal taking.   4.1.7    Where appropriate, Partiesshall encourage hunters, at local, national and international levels, to form clubsor organizationsto coordinate their activitiesand to help ensuresustainability.   4.1.8    Partiesshall, where appropriate, promote the requirement of a proficiency test for hunters, including among other things, bird identification.   4.2       Eco-tourism   4.2.1    Partiesshall encourage, where appropriate but not in the case of core zonesof protected areas, the elaboration of cooperative programmesbetween all concerned to developsensitive and appropriate eco-tourism at wetlandsholding concentrationsof populationslisted in Table 1.   4.2.2    Parties, in cooperation with competent international organisations,shall endeavour to evaluate the costs, benefitsand other consequencesthat can result from eco-tourism atselected wetlandswith concentrationsof populationslisted in Table 1. Theyshall communicate the resultsof anysuch evaluationsto the Agreementsecretariat.   4.3       Other Human Activities   4.3.1    Partiesshall assessthe impact of proposed projectswhich are likely to lead to conflictsbetween populationslisted in Table 1 that are in the areasreferred to in paragraph 3.2 and human interests, andshall make the resultsof the assessment publicly available.   4.3.2    Partiesshall endeavour to gather information on the damage, in particular to cropsand to fisheries, caused by populationslisted in Table 1, and report the resultsto the Agreementsecretariat.   4.3.3        Partiesshall cooperate with a view to identifying appropriate techniquesto minimize damage, or to mitigate the effectsof damage, in particular to cropsand to fisheries, caused by populationslisted in Table 1, drawing on the experience gained elsewhere in the world.   4.3.4    Partiesshall cooperate with a view to developingsinglespeciesaction plansfor populationswhich causesignificant damage, in particular to cropsand to fisheries. The Agreementsecretariatshall coordinate the development and harmonization ofsuch plans.   4.3.5    Partiesshall, asfar aspossible, promote high environmentalstandardsin the planning and construction ofstructuresto minimize their impact on populationslisted in Table 1. Theyshould considerstepsto minimize the impact ofstructuresalready in existence where it becomesevident that they constitute a negative impact for the populationsconcerned.   4.3.6    In caseswhere human disturbance threatensthe conservation statusof waterbird populationslisted in Table 1, Partiesshould endeavour to take measuresto limit the level of threat. Special attention should be given to problem of human disturbance at breeding coloniesof colonially-nesting waterbirds, especially when they are situated in the areaswhich are popular for outdoor recreation. Appropriate measuresmight include, inter alia, the establishment of disturbance-free zones in protected areas where public access is not permitted.   4.3.7    Parties are urged to take appropriate actionsnationally or through the framework of Regional FisheriesManagement Organisations(RFMOs) and relevant international organisationsto minimise the impact of fisheries[1] on migratory waterbirds, and where possible cooperate within these forums, in order to decrease the mortality in areas within and beyond national jurisdiction; appropriate measuresshall especially address incidental killing and bycatch in fishing gear including the use of gill nets, longlines and trawling.   4.3.8    Parties are also urged to take appropriate actionsnationally or through the framework of Regional FisheriesManagement Organisations(RFMOs) and relevant international organisationsto minimise the impact of fisherieson migratory waterbirdsresulting in particular from unsustainable fishing that causesdepletion of food resourcesfor migratory waterbirds.   4.3.9    Partiesshall establish and effectively enforce adequatestatutory pollution controlsin accordance with international normsand legal agreements, particularly asrelated to oilspills, discharge and dumping ofsolid wastes, for the purpose of minimizing their impactson the populationslisted in Table 1.   4.3.10 Partiesshall establish appropriate measures, ideally to eliminate or otherwise to mitigate the threat from non-native terrestrial predatorsto breeding migratory waterbirdson islandsand islets. Measuresshould refer to contingency planning to prevent invasion, emergency responsesto remove introduced predators, and restoration programmesfor islandswhere predator populationsare already established.   4.3.11  Parties are urged to establish appropriate measuresto tackle threatsto migratory waterbirdsfrom aquaculture, including environmental assessment for developmentsthat threaten wetlandsof importance for waterbirds, especially when dealing with new or enlargement of existing installations, and involving issuessuch aspollution (e.g. from residuesof pharmaceutical treatmentsused in aquaculture or eutrophication), habitat loss, entanglement risks, and introduction of non-native and potentially invasive species.”     5.         Research and Monitoring   5.1       Partiesshall endeavour to carry outsurvey work in poorly known areas, which may hold important concentrationsof the populationslisted in Table 1. The resultsofsuchsurveysshall be disseminated widely.   5.2       Partiesshall endeavour to monitor the populationslisted in Table 1. The resultsofsuch monitoringshall be published orsent to appropriate international organizations, to enable reviewsof populationstatusand trends.   5.3       Partiesshall cooperate to improve the measurement of bird population trendsasa criterion for describing thestatusofsuch populations.   5.4       Partiesshall cooperate with a view to determining the migration routesof all populationslisted in Table 1, using available knowledge of breeding and non-breedingseason distributionsand censusresults, and by participating in coordinated ringing programmes.   5.5       Partiesshall endeavour to initiate andsupport joint research projectsinto the ecology and population dynamicsof populationslisted in Table 1 and their habitats, in order to determine theirspecific requirementsaswell asthe techniqueswhich are the most appropriate for their conservation and management.   5.6       Partiesshall endeavour to undertakestudieson the effectsof wetland lossand degradation and disturbance on the carrying capacity of wetlandsused by the populationslisted in Table 1 and on the migration patternsofsuch populations.   5.7       Partiesshall endeavour to undertakestudieson the impact of hunting and trade on the populationslisted in Table 1 and on the importance of these formsof utilization to the local and national economy.   5.8       Partiesshall endeavour to cooperate with relevant international organisationsand tosupport research and monitoring projects.     6.         Education and Information   6.1       Partiesshall, where necessary, arrange for training programmesto ensure that personnel responsible for the implementation of thisAction Plan have an adequate knowledge to implement it effectively.   6.2       Partiesshall cooperate with each other and the Agreementsecretariat with a view to developing training programmesand exchanging resource materials.   6.3       Partiesshall endeavour to develop programmes, information materialsand mechanismsto improve the level of awarenessof the general public with regard to the objectives, provisionsand contentsof thisAction Plan. In thisregard, particular attentionshall be given to those people living in and around important wetlands, to usersof these wetlands(hunters, fishermen, tourists, etc.) and to local authoritiesand other decision makers.   6.4       Partiesshall endeavour to undertakespecific public awarenesscampaignsfor the conservation of the populationslisted in Table 1.     7.               Implementation   7.1       When implementing thisAction Plan, Partiesshall, when appropriate, give priority to those populationslisted in Column A of Table 1.   7.2       Where, in the case of populationslisted in Table 1, more than one population of thesamespeciesoccurson the territory of a Party, that Partyshall apply conservation measuresappropriate to the population or populationsthat have the poorest conservationstatus.   7.3       The Agreement secretariat, in coordination with the Technical Committee and with the assistance of expertsfrom Range States, shall coordinate the development of conservation guidelinesin accordance with Article IV, paragraph 4, of thisAgreement to assist the Partiesin the implementation of thisAction Plan. The Agreement secretariat shall ensure, where possible, coherence with guidelinesapproved under other international instruments. These conservation guidelinesshall aim at introducing the principle of sustainable use. They shall cover, inter alia:               (a)  singlespeciesaction plans;             (b)   emergency measures;             (c)   preparation ofsite inventoriesand habitat management methods;             (d)   hunting practices;             (e)   trade in waterbirds;             (f)   tourism;             (g)   reducing crop damage; and             (h)   a waterbird monitoring protocol.   7.4       The Agreementsecretariat, in coordination with the Technical Committee and the Parties,shall prepare aseriesof international reviewsnecessary for the implementation of thisAction Plan, including:               (a)   reportson thestatusand trendsof populations;             (b)   gapsin information fromsurveys;             (c)   the networksofsitesused by each population, including reviewsof the protectionstatusof eachsite aswell asof the management measurestaken in each case;             (d)   pertinent hunting and trade legislation in each country relating to thespecieslisted in Annex 2 to thisAgreement;             (e)   thestage of preparation and implementation ofsinglespeciesaction plans;             (f)   re-establishment projects; and             (g)   thestatusof introduced non-native waterbirdspeciesand hybridsthereof.   7.5       The Agreementsecretariatshall endeavour to ensure that the reviewsmentioned in paragraph 7.4 are updated at the following intervals:   (a) – everysession of the Meeting of the Parties; (b) – everysecondsession of the Meeting of the Parties; (c) – everysecondsession of the Meeting of the Parties; (d) – every thirdsession of the Meeting of the Parties; (e) – everysecondsession of the Meeting of the Parties; (f) – every thirdsession of the Meeting of the Parties; (g) - everysecondsession of the Meeting of the Parties.   7.6       The Technical Committeeshall assessthe guidelinesand reviewsprepared under paragraphs7.3 and 7.4, andshall formulate draft recommendationsand resolutionsrelating to their development, content and implementation for consideration atsessionsof theMeetingof the Parties.   7.7       The Agreementsecretariatshall regularly undertake a review of potential mechanismsfor providing additional resources(fundsand technical assistance) for the implementation of thisAction Plan, andshall make a report to each ordinarysession of theMeetingof the Parties.   [1] “fisheries” includes aquaculture and refers to either marine or freshwater fish, crustaceans, and molluscs (e.g. bivalves, gastropods and cephalopods).     Table 1a/   STATUS OF THE POPULATIONS OF MIGRATORY WATERBIRDS   KEY TO CLASSIFICATION   The following key to Table 1 isa basisfor implementation of the Action Plan: Column A   Category 1:   (a)    Species, which are included in Appendix I to the Convention on the Conservation of Migratoryspeciesof Wild Animals;   (b)    Species, which are listed asthreatened on the IUCN Red list of Threatened Species, asreported in the most recentsummary by BirdLife International; or                      (c)    Populations, which number lessthan around 10,000 individuals.   Category 2:   Populations numbering between around 10,000 and around 25,000 individuals.   Category 3:   Populationsnumbering between around 25,000 and around 100,000 individualsand   considered to be at risk asa result of:                        (a)    Concentration onto asmall number ofsitesat anystage of their annual cycle;                      (b)    Dependence on a habitat type, which isundersevere threat;                      (c)    Showingsignificant long-term decline; or                      (d)    Showing extreme fluctuationsin populationsize or trend.   Forspecieslisted in categories2 and 3 above,see paragraph 2.1.1 of the Action Plan contained in Annex 3 to the Agreement.   Column B   Category 1:   Populationsnumbering between around 25,000 and around 100,000 individualsand   which do not fulfil the conditionsin respect of column A, asdescribed above.   Category 2:   Populationsnumbering more than around 100,000 individualsand considered to be in need ofspecial attention asa result of:                        (a)    Concentration onto asmall number ofsitesat anystage of their annual cycle;                      (b)    Dependence on a habitat type, which isundersevere threat;                      (c)    Showingsignificant long-term decline; or                      (d)    Showing extreme fluctuationsin populationsize or trend.   Column C   Category 1:   Populationsnumbering more than around 100,000 individualswhich could   significantly benefit from international cooperation and which do not fulfil the   conditions in respect of either column A or column B, above. REVIEW OF TABLE 1   The Tableshall be:   (a)    Reviewed regularly by the Technical Committee in accordance with article VII, paragraph 3(b), of the Agreement; and   (b)    Amended asnecessary by the Meeting of the Parties, in accordance with article VI, paragraph 9(d) of the Agreement, in light of the conclusionsofsuch reviews.     DEFINITION OF GEOGRAPHICAL TERMS USED IN RANGE DESCRIPTIONS*   North Africa               Algeria,Egypt, the Libyan ArabJamahiriya,Morocco,Tunisia.   West Africa                 Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, the Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo.   Eastern Africa            Burundi,Djibouti,Eritrea,Ethiopia,Kenya,Rwanda,Somalia,Sudan,Uganda, the UnitedRepublicofTanzania.   North-west Africa       Morocco,AlgeriaandTunisia.   North-east Africa       Djibouti,Egypt,Eritrea,Ethiopia,Somalia,Sudan.   Southern Africa          Angola,Botswana,Lesotho,Malawi,Mozambique,Namibia,South Africa,Swaziland,Zambia,Zimbabwe.   Central Africa             Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe.   Sub-Saharan Africa     All Africanstatessouth of theSahara.   Tropical Africa            Sub-Saharan Africa excludingLesotho,Namibia,South AfricaandSwaziland.   Western Palearctic       As defined in Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa (Cramp & Simmons 1977).   North-west Europe      Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.   Western Europe           North-west Europe withPortugalandSpain.   North-east Europe        The northern part of theRussian Federationwest of the Urals.   North Europe              North-west Europe andNorth-east Europe, asdefined above.   Eastern Europe           Belarus, theRussian Federationwest of the Urals,Ukraine.   Central Europe            Austria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Poland, the Russian Federation around the Gulf of Finland and Kaliningrad, Slovakia, Switzerland.   South-west Europe                                             France,Italy,Malta,Monaco,Portugal,San Marino,Spain.   South-east Europe       Albania, Armenia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece, FYR Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Turkey.   South Europe              South-west Europe andSouth-east Europe, as defined above.   North Atlantic             Faroes,Greenland,Iceland,Ireland,Norway, the north-west coast of theRussian Federation,Svalbard, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.   East Atlantic                Atlanticseaboard of Europe and North Africa from northernNorwaytoMorocco.   Western Siberia           The Russian Federation east of the Uralsto theYeniseyRiverandsouth to theKazakhstanborder.   Central Siberia             The Russian Federation from theYeniseyRiverto the eastern boundary of the Taimyr Peninsula andsouth to theAltai Mountains.   West Mediterranean   Algeria,France,Italy,Malta,Monaco,Morocco,Portugal,San Marino,Spain,Tunisia.   East Mediterranean      Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Israel, Lebanon, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia, the Syrian Arab Republic, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey.   Black Sea                   Armenia,Bulgaria,Georgia,RepublicofMoldova,Romania, theRussian Federation,Turkey,Ukraine.   Caspian                      Azerbaijan, IslamicRepublicofIran,Kazakhstan, South-westRussia,Turkmenistan,Uzbekistan.   South-west Asia          Bahrain, Iraq, Islamic Republic of Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the Syrian Arab Republic, eastern Turkey, Turkmenistan, the United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Yemen.   Gulf                            the Persian Gulf,GulfofOmanand Arabian Sea west to theGulf of Aden.   Western Asia               Western partsof theRussian Federationeast of the Uralsand the Caspian countries.   Central Asia               Afghanistan,Kazakhstan,Kyrgyzstan,Tajikistan,Turkmenistan,Uzbekistan.   Southern Asia             Bangladesh,Bhutan,India,Maldives,Nepal,Pakistan,Sri Lanka.   Indian Ocean              Comoros,Madagascar,Mauritius,Seychelles. *These definitions do not follow any geo-political or economic regionalisation; they are based on the ranges and biogeographical delineation of waterbird populations. Therefore, certain countries may appear in more than one definition.   KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS   bre:    breeding                                     win:     wintering N:      Northern                                    E:         Eastern S:       Southern                                    W:        Western NE:    North-eastern                             NW:     North-western SE:     South-eastern                             SW:      South-western   ():      Populationstatusunknown. Conservationstatusestimated.   *:       By way of exception for those populationsmarked by an asterisk, hunting may continue on asustainable use basiswhere hunting ofsuch populationsisa long-established cultural practice (see paragraph 2.1.1 of Annex 3 to the Agreement).   NOTES   The population data used to compile Table 1 asfar aspossible correspond to the number of individualsin the potential breedingstock in the Agreement area. Thestatusisbased on the best available published population estimates. Suffixes(bre) or (win) in population listingsaresolely aidsto population identification. They do not indicateseasonal restrictionsto actionsin respect of these populationsunder the Agreement and Action Plan. The brief descriptionsused to identify the populationsare based on the descriptionsused in the fourth edition of Waterbird Population Estimates and the Handbook of the Birds of the World. Slashsigns(/) are used toseparate breeding areasfrom wintering areas. Where aspecies’ population islisted in Table 1 with multiple categorisations, the obligationsof the Action Plan relate to thestrictest category listed. a/Table 1, “Status of the populations of migratory waterbirds” forms part of the Action Plan contained in Annex 3 to the Agreement.  

Annex III Action Plan

1.         Field of Application   1.1       The Action Plan is applicable to the populations of migratory waterbirds listed in Table 1 to this Annex (hereafter referred to as"Table 1").   1.2       Table 1 forms an integral part of this Annex. Any reference to this Action Plan includes a reference to Table 1.     2.         Species Conservation   2.1       Legal measures   2.1.1    Parties with populations listed in column A of Table 1 shall provide protection to those populations listed in accordance with Article III, paragraph 2(a), of this Agreement. Such Parties shall in particular and subject to paragraph 2.1.3 below:               (a)   prohibit the taking of birds and eggs of those populations occurring in their territory;               (b)   prohibit deliberate disturbance in so far as such disturbance would be significant for the conservation of the population concerned; and               (c)   prohibit the possession or utilization of, and trade in, birds or eggs of those populations which have been taken in contravention of the prohibitions laid down pursuant to subparagraph (a) above, as well as the possession or utilization of, and trade in, any readily recognizable parts or derivatives of such birds and their eggs.               By way of exception for those populations listed in Categories 2 and 3 in Column A only and which are marked by an asterisk, hunting may continue on a sustainable use basis where hunting of such populations is a long-established cultural practice. This sustainable use shall be conducted within the framework of special provisions of a species action plan at the appropriate international level.   2.1.2    Partieswith populationslisted in Table 1shall regulate the taking of birdsand eggsof all populationslisted in column B of Table 1. The object ofsuch legal measuresshall be to maintain or contribute to the restoration of those populationsto a favourable conservationstatusand to ensure, on the basisof the best available knowledge of population dynamics, that any taking or other use issustainable.  Such legal measures,subject to paragraph 2.1.3 below,shall in particular:               (a)   prohibit the taking of birdsbelonging to the populationsconcerned during their variousstagesof reproduction and rearing and during their return to their breeding groundsif the taking hasan unfavourable impact on the conservationstatusof the population concerned;               (b)   regulate the modesof taking;               (c)   establish limitson taking, where appropriate, and provide adequate controlsto ensure that these limitsare observed; and               (d)   prohibit the possession or utilization of, and trade in, birdsand eggsof the populationswhich have been taken in contravention of any prohibition laid down pursuant to the provisionsof thisparagraph, aswell asthe possession or utilization of, and trade in, any readily recognizable partsor derivativesofsuch birdsand their eggs.   2.1.3    Partiesmay grant exemptionsto the prohibitionslaid down in paragraphs2.1.1 and 2.1.2, irrespective of the provisionsof Article III, paragraph 5, of the Convention, where there isno othersatisfactorysolution, for the following purposes:               (a)   to preventseriousdamage to crops, water and fisheries;               (b)   in the interestsof airsafety or other overriding public interests;               (c)   for the purpose of research and education, of re-establishment and for the breeding necessary for these purposes;               (d)   to permit understrictlysupervised conditions, on aselective basisand to a limited extent, the taking and keeping or other judicioususe of certain birdsinsmall numbers; and               (e)   for the purpose of enhancing the propagation orsurvival of the populationsconcerned.               Such exemptionsshall be precise asto content and limited inspace and time andshall not operate to the detriment of the populationslisted in Table 1. Partiesshall assoon aspossible inform the Agreementsecretariat of any exemptionsgranted pursuant to thisprovision.   2.2       Single Species Action Plans   2.2.1    Partiesshall cooperate with a view to developing and implementing internationalsinglespeciesaction plansfor populationslisted in Category 1 of Column A of Table 1 asa priority and for those populationslisted with an asterisk in Column A of Table 1. The Agreementsecretariatshall coordinate the development, harmonization and implementation ofsuch plans.   2.2.2    Partiesshall prepare and implement nationalsinglespeciesaction plansfor the populationslisted in Column A of Table 1 with a view to improving their overall conservationstatus. Thisaction planshall includespecial provisionsfor those populationsmarked with an asterisk. When appropriate, the problem of accidental killing of birdsby huntersasa result of incorrect identification of thespeciesshould be considered.   2.3       Emergency Measures               Partiesshall, in close cooperation with each other whenever possible and relevant, develop and implement emergency measuresfor populationslisted in Table 1, when exceptionally unfavourable or endangering conditionsoccur anywhere in the Agreement Area. 2.4     Re-establishments               Partiesshall exercise the greatest care when re-establishing populationslisted in Table 1 into partsof their traditional range where they no longer exist. Theyshall endeavour to develop and follow a detailed re-establishment plan based on appropriatescientificstudies. Re-establishment plansshould constitute an integral part of national and, where appropriate, internationalsinglespeciesaction plans. A re-establishment planshould include assessment of the impact on the environment andshall be made widely available. Partiesshall inform the Agreementsecretariat, in advance, of all re-establishment programme for populationslisted in Table 1.   2.5       Introductions   2.5.1    Partiesshall, if they consider it necessary, prohibit the introduction of non-nativespeciesof animalsand plantswhich may be detrimental to the populationslisted in Table 1.   2.5.2    Partiesshall, if they consider it necessary, require the taking of appropriate precautionsto avoid the accidental escape of captive birdsbelonging to non-nativespecies.   2.5.3    Partiesshall take measuresto the extent feasible and appropriate, including taking, to ensure that when non-nativespeciesor hybridsthereof have already been introduced into their territory, thosespeciesor their hybridsdo not pose a potential hazard to the populationslisted in Table 1.     3.           Habitat Conservation   3.1       Habitat Inventories   3.1.1    Parties, in liaison where appropriate with competent international organizations,shall undertake and publish national inventoriesof the habitatswithin their territory which are important to the populationslisted in Table 1.   3.1.2    Partiesshall endeavour, asa matter of priority, to identify allsitesof international or national importance for populationslisted in Table 1.   3.2       Conservation of Areas   3.2.1    Partiesshall endeavour to continue establishing protected areasto conserve habitatsimportant for the populationslisted in Table 1, and to develop and implement management plansfor these areas.   3.2.2    Partiesshall endeavour to givespecial protection to those wetlandswhich meet internationally accepted criteria of international importance.   3.2.3    Partiesshall endeavour to make wise and sustainable use of all of the wetlandsin their territory. In particular they shall endeavour to avoid degradation and lossof habitatsthat support populationslisted in Table 1 through the introduction of appropriate regulationsor standardsand control measures. In particular, they shall endeavour to:               (a)  ensure, where practicable, that adequatestatutory controlsare in place, relating to the use of agricultural chemicals, pest control proceduresand the disposal of waste water, which are in accordance with international norms, for the purpose of minimizing their adverse impactson the populationslisted in Table 1; and               (b)   prepare and distribute information materials, in the appropriate languages, describingsuch regulations,standardsand control measuresin force and their benefitsto people and wildlife.   3.2.4    Partiesshall endeavour to developstrategies, according to an ecosystem approach, for the conservation of the habitatsof all populationslisted in Table 1, including the habitatsof those populationsthat are dispersed.   3.3       Rehabilitation and Restoration               Partiesshall endeavour to rehabilitate or restore, where feasible and appropriate, areaswhich were previously important for the populationslisted in Table 1.     4.         Management of Human Activities   4.1       Hunting   4.1.1    Partiesshall cooperate to ensure that their hunting legislation implementsthe principle ofsustainable use asenvisaged in thisAction Plan, taking into account the full geographical range of the waterbird populationsconcerned and their life history characteristics.   4.1.2        The Agreementsecretariatshall be kept informed by the Partiesof their legislation relating to the hunting of populationslisted in Table 1.   4.1.3    Partiesshall cooperate with a view to developing a reliable and harmonizedsystem for the collection of harvest data in order to assessthe annual harvest of populationslisted in Table 1. Theyshall provide the Agreementsecretariat with estimatesof the total annual take for each population, when available.   4.1.4    Partiesshall endeavour to phase out the use of leadshot for hunting in wetlandsassoon aspossible in accordance withself-imposed and published timetables.   4.1.5    Partiesshall develop and implement measuresto reduce, and asfar aspossible eliminate, the use of poisoned baits.   4.1.6    Partiesshall develop and implement measuresto reduce, and asfar aspossible eliminate, illegal taking.   4.1.7    Where appropriate, Partiesshall encourage hunters, at local, national and international levels, to form clubsor organizationsto coordinate their activitiesand to help ensuresustainability.   4.1.8    Partiesshall, where appropriate, promote the requirement of a proficiency test for hunters, including among other things, bird identification.   4.2       Eco-tourism   4.2.1    Partiesshall encourage, where appropriate but not in the case of core zonesof protected areas, the elaboration of cooperative programmesbetween all concerned to developsensitive and appropriate eco-tourism at wetlandsholding concentrationsof populationslisted in Table 1.   4.2.2    Parties, in cooperation with competent international organisations,shall endeavour to evaluate the costs, benefitsand other consequencesthat can result from eco-tourism atselected wetlandswith concentrationsof populationslisted in Table 1. Theyshall communicate the resultsof anysuch evaluationsto the Agreementsecretariat.   4.3       Other Human Activities   4.3.1    Partiesshall assessthe impact of proposed projectswhich are likely to lead to conflictsbetween populationslisted in Table 1 that are in the areasreferred to in paragraph 3.2 and human interests, andshall make the resultsof the assessment publicly available.   4.3.2    Partiesshall endeavour to gather information on the damage, in particular to cropsand to fisheries, caused by populationslisted in Table 1, and report the resultsto the Agreementsecretariat.   4.3.3        Partiesshall cooperate with a view to identifying appropriate techniquesto minimize damage, or to mitigate the effectsof damage, in particular to cropsand to fisheries, caused by populationslisted in Table 1, drawing on the experience gained elsewhere in the world.   4.3.4    Partiesshall cooperate with a view to developingsinglespeciesaction plansfor populationswhich causesignificant damage, in particular to cropsand to fisheries. The Agreementsecretariatshall coordinate the development and harmonization ofsuch plans.   4.3.5    Partiesshall, asfar aspossible, promote high environmentalstandardsin the planning and construction ofstructuresto minimize their impact on populationslisted in Table 1. Theyshould considerstepsto minimize the impact ofstructuresalready in existence where it becomesevident that they constitute a negative impact for the populationsconcerned.   4.3.6    In caseswhere human disturbance threatensthe conservation statusof waterbird populationslisted in Table 1, Partiesshould endeavour to take measuresto limit the level of threat. Special attention should be given to problem of human disturbance at breeding coloniesof colonially-nesting waterbirds, especially when they are situated in the areaswhich are popular for outdoor recreation. Appropriate measuresmight include, inter alia, the establishment of disturbance-free zones in protected areas where public access is not permitted.   4.3.7    Parties are urged to take appropriate actionsnationally or through the framework of Regional FisheriesManagement Organisations(RFMOs) and relevant international organisationsto minimise the impact of fisheries[1] on migratory waterbirds, and where possible cooperate within these forums, in order to decrease the mortality in areas within and beyond national jurisdiction; appropriate measuresshall especially address incidental killing and bycatch in fishing gear including the use of gill nets, longlines and trawling.   4.3.8    Parties are also urged to take appropriate actionsnationally or through the framework of Regional FisheriesManagement Organisations(RFMOs) and relevant international organisationsto minimise the impact of fisherieson migratory waterbirdsresulting in particular from unsustainable fishing that causesdepletion of food resourcesfor migratory waterbirds.   4.3.9    Partiesshall establish and effectively enforce adequatestatutory pollution controlsin accordance with international normsand legal agreements, particularly asrelated to oilspills, discharge and dumping ofsolid wastes, for the purpose of minimizing their impactson the populationslisted in Table 1.   4.3.10 Partiesshall establish appropriate measures, ideally to eliminate or otherwise to mitigate the threat from non-native terrestrial predatorsto breeding migratory waterbirdson islandsand islets. Measuresshould refer to contingency planning to prevent invasion, emergency responsesto remove introduced predators, and restoration programmesfor islandswhere predator populationsare already established.   4.3.11  Parties are urged to establish appropriate measuresto tackle threatsto migratory waterbirdsfrom aquaculture, including environmental assessment for developmentsthat threaten wetlandsof importance for waterbirds, especially when dealing with new or enlargement of existing installations, and involving issuessuch aspollution (e.g. from residuesof pharmaceutical treatmentsused in aquaculture or eutrophication), habitat loss, entanglement risks, and introduction of non-native and potentially invasive species.”     5.         Research and Monitoring   5.1       Partiesshall endeavour to carry outsurvey work in poorly known areas, which may hold important concentrationsof the populationslisted in Table 1. The resultsofsuchsurveysshall be disseminated widely.   5.2       Partiesshall endeavour to monitor the populationslisted in Table 1. The resultsofsuch monitoringshall be published orsent to appropriate international organizations, to enable reviewsof populationstatusand trends.   5.3       Partiesshall cooperate to improve the measurement of bird population trendsasa criterion for describing thestatusofsuch populations.   5.4       Partiesshall cooperate with a view to determining the migration routesof all populationslisted in Table 1, using available knowledge of breeding and non-breedingseason distributionsand censusresults, and by participating in coordinated ringing programmes.   5.5       Partiesshall endeavour to initiate andsupport joint research projectsinto the ecology and population dynamicsof populationslisted in Table 1 and their habitats, in order to determine theirspecific requirementsaswell asthe techniqueswhich are the most appropriate for their conservation and management.   5.6       Partiesshall endeavour to undertakestudieson the effectsof wetland lossand degradation and disturbance on the carrying capacity of wetlandsused by the populationslisted in Table 1 and on the migration patternsofsuch populations.   5.7       Partiesshall endeavour to undertakestudieson the impact of hunting and trade on the populationslisted in Table 1 and on the importance of these formsof utilization to the local and national economy.   5.8       Partiesshall endeavour to cooperate with relevant international organisationsand tosupport research and monitoring projects.     6.         Education and Information   6.1       Partiesshall, where necessary, arrange for training programmesto ensure that personnel responsible for the implementation of thisAction Plan have an adequate knowledge to implement it effectively.   6.2       Partiesshall cooperate with each other and the Agreementsecretariat with a view to developing training programmesand exchanging resource materials.   6.3       Partiesshall endeavour to develop programmes, information materialsand mechanismsto improve the level of awarenessof the general public with regard to the objectives, provisionsand contentsof thisAction Plan. In thisregard, particular attentionshall be given to those people living in and around important wetlands, to usersof these wetlands(hunters, fishermen, tourists, etc.) and to local authoritiesand other decision makers.   6.4       Partiesshall endeavour to undertakespecific public awarenesscampaignsfor the conservation of the populationslisted in Table 1.     7.               Implementation   7.1       When implementing thisAction Plan, Partiesshall, when appropriate, give priority to those populationslisted in Column A of Table 1.   7.2       Where, in the case of populationslisted in Table 1, more than one population of thesamespeciesoccurson the territory of a Party, that Partyshall apply conservation measuresappropriate to the population or populationsthat have the poorest conservationstatus.   7.3       The Agreement secretariat, in coordination with the Technical Committee and with the assistance of expertsfrom Range States, shall coordinate the development of conservation guidelinesin accordance with Article IV, paragraph 4, of thisAgreement to assist the Partiesin the implementation of thisAction Plan. The Agreement secretariat shall ensure, where possible, coherence with guidelinesapproved under other international instruments. These conservation guidelinesshall aim at introducing the principle of sustainable use. They shall cover, inter alia:               (a)  singlespeciesaction plans;             (b)   emergency measures;             (c)   preparation ofsite inventoriesand habitat management methods;             (d)   hunting practices;             (e)   trade in waterbirds;             (f)   tourism;             (g)   reducing crop damage; and             (h)   a waterbird monitoring protocol.   7.4       The Agreementsecretariat, in coordination with the Technical Committee and the Parties,shall prepare aseriesof international reviewsnecessary for the implementation of thisAction Plan, including:               (a)   reportson thestatusand trendsof populations;             (b)   gapsin information fromsurveys;             (c)   the networksofsitesused by each population, including reviewsof the protectionstatusof eachsite aswell asof the management measurestaken in each case;             (d)   pertinent hunting and trade legislation in each country relating to thespecieslisted in Annex 2 to thisAgreement;             (e)   thestage of preparation and implementation ofsinglespeciesaction plans;             (f)   re-establishment projects; and             (g)   thestatusof introduced non-native waterbirdspeciesand hybridsthereof.   7.5       The Agreementsecretariatshall endeavour to ensure that the reviewsmentioned in paragraph 7.4 are updated at the following intervals:   (a) – everysession of the Meeting of the Parties; (b) – everysecondsession of the Meeting of the Parties; (c) – everysecondsession of the Meeting of the Parties; (d) – every thirdsession of the Meeting of the Parties; (e) – everysecondsession of the Meeting of the Parties; (f) – every thirdsession of the Meeting of the Parties; (g) - everysecondsession of the Meeting of the Parties.   7.6       The Technical Committeeshall assessthe guidelinesand reviewsprepared under paragraphs7.3 and 7.4, andshall formulate draft recommendationsand resolutionsrelating to their development, content and implementation for consideration atsessionsof theMeetingof the Parties.   7.7       The Agreementsecretariatshall regularly undertake a review of potential mechanismsfor providing additional resources(fundsand technical assistance) for the implementation of thisAction Plan, andshall make a report to each ordinarysession of theMeetingof the Parties.     Table 1a/   STATUS OF THE POPULATIONS OF MIGRATORY WATERBIRDS   KEY TO CLASSIFICATION   The following key to Table 1 isa basisfor implementation of the Action Plan:   Column A   Category 1:   (a)    Species, which are included in Appendix I to the Convention on the Conservation of Migratoryspeciesof Wild Animals;   (b)    Species, which are listed asthreatened on the IUCN Red list of Threatened Species, asreported in the most recentsummary by BirdLife International; or                      (c)    Populations, which number lessthan around 10,000 individuals.   Category 2:   Populations numbering between around 10,000 and around 25,000 individuals.   Category 3:   Populationsnumbering between around 25,000 and around 100,000 individualsand   considered to be at risk asa result of:                        (a)    Concentration onto asmall number ofsitesat anystage of their annual cycle;                      (b)    Dependence on a habitat type, which isundersevere threat;                      (c)    Showingsignificant long-term decline; or                      (d)    Showing extreme fluctuationsin populationsize or trend.   Forspecieslisted in categories2 and 3 above,see paragraph 2.1.1 of the Action Plan contained in Annex 3 to the Agreement.   Column B   Category 1:   Populationsnumbering between around 25,000 and around 100,000 individualsand   which do not fulfil the conditionsin respect of column A, asdescribed above.   Category 2:   Populationsnumbering more than around 100,000 individualsand considered to be in need ofspecial attention asa result of:                        (a)    Concentration onto asmall number ofsitesat anystage of their annual cycle;                      (b)    Dependence on a habitat type, which isundersevere threat;                      (c)    Showingsignificant long-term decline; or                      (d)    Showing extreme fluctuationsin populationsize or trend.   Column C   Category 1:   Populationsnumbering more than around 100,000 individualswhich could   significantly benefit from international cooperation and which do not fulfil the   conditions in respect of either column A or column B, above.   REVIEW OF TABLE 1   The Tableshall be:   (a)    Reviewed regularly by the Technical Committee in accordance with article VII, paragraph 3(b), of the Agreement; and   (b)    Amended asnecessary by the Meeting of the Parties, in accordance with article VI, paragraph 9(d) of the Agreement, in light of the conclusionsofsuch reviews.     DEFINITION OF GEOGRAPHICAL TERMS USED IN RANGE DESCRIPTIONS*   North Africa               Algeria,Egypt, the Libyan ArabJamahiriya,Morocco,Tunisia.   West Africa                 Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, the Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo.   Eastern Africa            Burundi,Djibouti,Eritrea,Ethiopia,Kenya,Rwanda,Somalia,Sudan,Uganda, the UnitedRepublicofTanzania.   North-west Africa       Morocco,AlgeriaandTunisia.   North-east Africa       Djibouti,Egypt,Eritrea,Ethiopia,Somalia,Sudan.   Southern Africa          Angola,Botswana,Lesotho,Malawi,Mozambique,Namibia,South Africa,Swaziland,Zambia,Zimbabwe.   Central Africa             Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe.   Sub-Saharan Africa     All Africanstatessouth of theSahara.   Tropical Africa            Sub-Saharan Africa excludingLesotho,Namibia,South AfricaandSwaziland.   Western Palearctic       As defined in Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa (Cramp & Simmons 1977).   North-west Europe      Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.   Western Europe           North-west Europe withPortugalandSpain.   North-east Europe        The northern part of theRussian Federationwest of the Urals.   North Europe              North-west Europe andNorth-east Europe, asdefined above.   Eastern Europe           Belarus, theRussian Federationwest of the Urals,Ukraine.   Central Europe            Austria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Poland, the Russian Federation around the Gulf of Finland and Kaliningrad, Slovakia, Switzerland.   South-west Europe                                             France,Italy,Malta,Monaco,Portugal,San Marino,Spain.   South-east Europe       Albania, Armenia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece, FYR Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Turkey.   South Europe              South-west Europe andSouth-east Europe, as defined above.   North Atlantic             Faroes,Greenland,Iceland,Ireland,Norway, the north-west coast of theRussian Federation,Svalbard, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.   East Atlantic                Atlanticseaboard of Europe and North Africa from northernNorwaytoMorocco.   Western Siberia           The Russian Federation east of the Uralsto theYeniseyRiverandsouth to theKazakhstanborder.   Central Siberia             The Russian Federation from theYeniseyRiverto the eastern boundary of the Taimyr Peninsula andsouth to theAltai Mountains.   West Mediterranean   Algeria,France,Italy,Malta,Monaco,Morocco,Portugal,San Marino,Spain,Tunisia.   East Mediterranean      Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Israel, Lebanon, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia, the Syrian Arab Republic, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey.   Black Sea                   Armenia,Bulgaria,Georgia,RepublicofMoldova,Romania, theRussian Federation,Turkey,Ukraine.   Caspian                      Azerbaijan, IslamicRepublicofIran,Kazakhstan, South-westRussia,Turkmenistan,Uzbekistan.   South-west Asia          Bahrain, Iraq, Islamic Republic of Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the Syrian Arab Republic, eastern Turkey, Turkmenistan, the United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Yemen.   Gulf                            the Persian Gulf,GulfofOmanand Arabian Sea west to theGulf of Aden.   Western Asia               Western partsof theRussian Federationeast of the Uralsand the Caspian countries.   Central Asia               Afghanistan,Kazakhstan,Kyrgyzstan,Tajikistan,Turkmenistan,Uzbekistan.   Southern Asia             Bangladesh,Bhutan,India,Maldives,Nepal,Pakistan,Sri Lanka.   Indian Ocean              Comoros,Madagascar,Mauritius,Seychelles.     KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS   bre:    breeding                                     win:     wintering N:      Northern                                    E:         Eastern S:       Southern                                    W:        Western NE:    North-eastern                             NW:     North-western SE:     South-eastern                             SW:      South-western   ():      Populationstatusunknown. Conservationstatusestimated.   *:       By way of exception for those populationsmarked by an asterisk, hunting may continue on asustainable use basiswhere hunting ofsuch populationsisa long-established cultural practice (see paragraph 2.1.1 of Annex 3 to the Agreement).   NOTES   The population data used to compile Table 1 asfar aspossible correspond to the number of individualsin the potential breedingstock in the Agreement area. Thestatusisbased on the best available published population estimates.   Suffixes(bre) or (win) in population listingsaresolely aidsto population identification. They do not indicateseasonal restrictionsto actionsin respect of these populationsunder the Agreement and Action Plan.   The brief descriptionsused to identify the populationsare based on the descriptionsused in the fourth edition of Waterbird Population Estimates and the Handbook of the Birds of the World.   Slashsigns(/) are used toseparate breeding areasfrom wintering areas.   Where aspecies’ population islisted in Table 1 with multiple categorisations, the obligationsof the Action Plan relate to thestrictest category listed.     [1] “fisheries” includes aquaculture and refers to either marine or freshwater fish, crustaceans, and molluscs (e.g. bivalves, gastropods and cephalopods). a/Table 1, “Status of the populations of migratory waterbirds” forms part of the Action Plan contained in Annex 3 to the Agreement. *These definitions do not follow any geo-political or economic regionalisation; they are based on the ranges and biogeographical delineation of waterbird populations. Therefore, certain countries may appear in more than one definition.