Convinced of the urgency for action inspired by these Principles, especially in relation to the maintenance of the capacity of the earth to produce essential renewable natural resources, the safeguarding of representative samples of natural ecosystems, and the safeguarding of the heritage of wildlife and its habitat;
b) "National park" means an area established for the protection and conservation of ecosystems containing animal and plant species, geomorphological sites and habitats of special scientific, educative and recreational interest or a natural landscape of great beauty, which is under the control of the appropriate public authority and open to visits by the public;
c) "National reserve" means an area recognized and controlled by the appropriate public authority and established for protection and conservation of nature, and includes strict nature reserve, managed nature reserve, wilderness reserve, fauna or flora reserve, game reserve, bird sanctuary, geological or forest reserve, archaeological reserve and historical reserve, these being reserves affording various degrees of protection to the natural and cultural heritage according to the purposes for which they are established.
1. Each Contracting Party shall, to the extent that it is itself involved, encourage the creation of protected areas which together with existing protected areas will safeguard representative samples of the natural ecosystems occurring therein (particular attention being given to endangered species), as well as superlative scenery, striking geological formations, and regions and objects of aesthetic interest or historic, cultural or scientific value.
3. The hunting, killing, capture or collection of specimens (including eggs and shells) of the fauna and destruction or collection of specimens of the flora in national parks shall be prohibited, except when carried out by or under the direction or control of the appropriate authorities or for duly authorized scientific investigations.
1. The Contracting Parties shall, in addition to the protection given to indigenous fauna and flora in protected areas, use their best endeavours to protect such fauna and flora (special attention being given to migratory species) so as to safeguard them from unwise exploitation and other threats that may lead to their extinction.
2. Each Contracting Party shall establish and maintain a list of species of its indigenous fauna and flora that are threatened with extinction. Such lists shall be prepared as soon as possible after this Convention has come into force and shall be communicated to the body charged with the continuing bureau duties under this Convention.
3. Each Contracting Party shall protect as completely as possible as a matter of special urgency and importance the species included in the list it has established in accordance with the provisions of the last preceding paragraph. The hunting, killing, capture or collection of specimens (including eggs and shells) of such species shall be allowed only with the permission of the appropriate authority. Such permission shall be granted only under special circumstances, in order to further scientific purposes or when essential for the maintenance of the equilibrium of the ecosystem or for the administration of the area in which the animal or plant is found.
2. The Contracting Parties shall wherever practicable conduct research relating to the conservation of nature. They shall as appropriate co-ordinate such research with research carried out by other Parties. They shall co-operate in the exchange of information on the results of such research and on the management of protected areas and of protected species.
2. For each State which ratifies, accepts or approves this Convention or accedes thereto after the deposit of the fourth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, the Convention shall enter into force ninety days after the deposit by such State of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
1. The original of this Convention in the English and French languages, each version being equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Depositary, which shall transmit certified copies thereof to all States that have signed it or deposited instruments of accession to it.
2. The Depositary shall inform all signatory and acceding States of signatures, deposits of instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, entry into force of this Convention, and notifications of denunciation.
3. The Depositary shall transmit certified copies of this Convention to the Secretary-General of the United Nations for registration and publication in accordance with Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.