Considering that the coastal zones of the Mediterranean Sea are the common natural and cultural heritage of the peoples of the Mediterranean and that they should be preserved and used j udiciously for the benefit of present and future generations,
Concerned at the increase in anthropic pressure on the coastal zones of the Mediterranean Sea which is th reatening their fragile nature and desirous of halting and reversing the process of coas tal zone degradation and of significantly reducing the loss of biodivers ity of coastal ecosystems,
Worried by the risks threatening coasta l zones due to climate change, which is likely to result, inter alia , in a rise in sea level, and aware of the need to adopt sustainable measures to reduc e the negative impact of natural phenomena,
Convinced that, as an irreplaceable ec ological, economic and social resource, the planning and management of c oastal zones with a view to their preservation and sustainabl e development requires a specific integrated approach at the level of the Mediterranean basin as a whole and of its coastal States, taking into account their diversit y and in particular the specific needs of islands related to geomor phological characteristics.
Taking into account the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, done at Montego Bay on 10 December 1982, the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance es pecially as Waterfowl Habitat, done at Ramsar on 2 February 1971, and the Convention on Biol ogical Diversity, done at Rio de Janeiro on 5 June 1992, to which many Mediterranean coastal States and the European Community are Parties,
Concerned in particular to act in cooperation for the development of appropriate and integrated plans for coastal zone management pursuant to Article 4, paragraph 1(e), of the Un ited Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, done at New York on 9 May 1992,
71 Based upon the recommendations and work of the Mediterranean Commission on Sustainable Development and the recommendations of the Meetings of the Contracting Partie s held in Tunis in 1997, Monaco in 2001, Catania in 2003, and Portoroz in 2005, and the Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development adopted in Portoroz in 2005,
Determined to stimulate national, regional and local initiatives through coordinated promotional ac tion, cooperation and partner ship with the various actors concerned with a view to promot ing efficient governance for the purpose of integrated coastal zone management,
In conformity with the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and the Coastal Region of the Mediterranean and its Protocols, the Parties shall establish a common framework for the integrated management of the Mediterranean coastal zone and shall take the necessary measures to strengthen regional co-operation for this purpose.
(e) “Coastal zone” means the geomorphologi c area either side of the seashore in which the interaction between the marine and land parts occurs in the form of complex ecological and res ource systems made up of biotic and abiotic components coexisting and inte racting with hum an communities and relevant socio-economic activities.
(f) “Integrated coastal zone management” means a dynamic process for the sustainable management and us e of coastal zones, taking into account at the same time the fragility of c oastal ecosystems and landscapes, the diversity of activities and uses, their interactions, t he maritime orientation of certain activities and uses and their impact on both the marine and land parts.
2. If, within the limits of its soverei gnty, a Party establishes limits different from those envisaged in paragraph 1 of this Article, it shall communicate a declaration to the Depositary at the time of the deposit of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approv al of, or accession to this Protocol, or at any other subsequent time, in so far as:
(b) the landward limit is different, either more or less, from the limits of the territory of coastal units as defined above , in order to apply, inter alia , the ecosystem approach and economic and social criteria and to consider the specific needs of islands related to geomorphological characteristics and to take into a ccount the negative effects of climate change.
1. Nothing in this Protocol nor any act adopted on the basis of this Protocol shall prejudice the rights, the present and future claims or legal views of any Party relating to the Law of the Sea, in particular the nature and the extent of marine areas, the delimitation of marine areas between States with opposite or adjacent coasts, the right and modalitie s of passage through straits used for international navigation and t he right of innocent passage in territorial seas, as well as the nature and extent of the jurisdic tion of the coastal State, the flag State or the port State.
3. The provisions of this Protocol shall be without prejudice to stricter provisions respecting the protection and management of the coastal zone contained in other existing or future nat ional or international instruments or programmes.
(a) facilitate, through the rational pl anning of activities , the sustainable development of coastal zones by ensuring that the environment and landscapes are taken into account in harmony with ec onomic, social and cultural development;
(a) The biological wealth and the nat ural dynamics and f unctioning of the intertidal area and the complementary and interdependent nature of the marine part and the land part formi ng a single entity shall be taken particularly into account.
(b) All elements relating to hydrol ogical, geomorphological, climatic, ecological, socio-economic and cult ural systems shall be taken into account in an integrated manner, so as not to exceed the carrying capacity of the coastal zone and to prevent the negative effects of natural disasters and of development.
(d) Appropriate governance allowing adequate and timely participation in a transparent decision-making proc ess by local populations and stakeholders in civil society conc erned with coastal zones shall be ensured.
(b) organize appropriate coordinati on between the various authorities competent for both the marine and the l and parts of coastal zones in the different administrative services, at the national, regional and local levels;
(c) organize close coor dination between national authorities and regional and local bodies in the field of coas tal strategies, plans and programmes and in relation to the various authoriz ations for activities that may be achieved through joint consultative bodies or joint decision-making procedures.
1. In conformity with t he objectives and principles se t out in Articles 5 and 6 of this Protocol, the Parties shall endeavour to ensure the sustainable use and management of coastal zones in order to preserve the coastal natural habitats, landscapes, natural resources and ecosystem s, in compliance with international and regional legal instruments.
(a) Shall establish in coastal zones, as from the highest winter waterline, a zone where construction is not allowed. Taking into account, inter alia , the areas directly and negatively affected by climate change and natural risks, this zone may not be less than 100 mete rs in width, subject to the provisions of subparagraph (b) below . Stricter national measures determining this width s hall continue to apply.
2) in areas having particular geographi cal or other local constraints, especially related to populati on density or social needs, where individual housing, urbani sation or development are provided for by national legal instruments.
3. The Parties shall also endeavour to ensure that thei r national legal instruments include criteria for sustainable use of the coastal zone. Such criteria, taking into account specific local conditions, shall include, inter alia , the following:
1. In conformity with t he objectives and principles se t forth in Articles 5 and 6 of this Protocol, and taking into account the relevant provisions of the Barcelona Convention and its Protocols, the Parties shall:
to guarantee a high level of protection of the environment in the location and operation of agricultural and industrial activities so as to preserve coastal ecosyst ems and landscapes and prevent pollution of the sea, water, air and soil;
(iii) to monitor coastal aquifers and dynamic areas of contact or interface between fresh and salt water, which may be adversely affected by the extraction of underground water or by discharges into the natural environment;
(f) Infrastructure, energy facilities, ports and maritime works and structures, to subject such infrastructure, fa cilities, works and structures to authorization so that their negativ e impact on coastal ecosystems, landscapes and geomorphology is mi nimized or, where appropriate, compensated by non-fi nancial measures;
(a) adopt measures to ensure the protection and conservation, through legislation, planning and management of marine and coastal areas, in particular of those hosting habitats and species of high conservation value;
1. The Parties, recognizing the specific aesthetic, natural and cultural value of coastal landscapes, irrespec tive of their classificati on as protected areas, shall adopt measures to ensure the protec tion of coastal landscapes through legislation, pl anning and management.
(a) promote environmentally friendly activities in such areas and take special measures to ensure the parti cipation of the inhabitants in the protection of coastal ecosystem s based on their local customs and knowledge;
1. The Parties shall adopt, individually or collectively, all appropriate measures to preserve and protect the cultural, in particular archaeological and historical, heritage of coastal zones , including the underwater cultural heritage, in conformity with the app licable national and internat ional instruments.
1. With a view to ensuring effici ent governance throughout the process of the integrated management of coastal zones, the Parties shall take the necessary measures to ensure the appropriate involv ement in the phases of the formulation and implementation of coas tal and marine strategies, plans and programmes or projects, as well as the issuing of t he various authorizati ons, of the various stakeholders, including:
3. Mediation or concilia tion procedures and a right of administrative or legal recourse should be available to any st akeholder challenging dec isions, acts or omissions, subject to the par ticipation provisions estab lished by the Parties with respect to plans, programmes or proj ects concerning t he coastal zone.
1. The Parties undertake to carry out, at the national, regional or local level, awareness-raising activi ties on integrated coas tal zone management and to develop educational programme s, training and public educat ion on this subject.
2. The Parties shall organize, directly, mu ltilaterally or bilaterally, or with the assistance of the Organization, the Cent re or the international organizations concerned, educational programmes, training and public education on integrated management of coastal zones with a view to ensuring their sustainable development.
3. The Parties shall provide for inte rdisciplinary scientific research on integrated coastal zone management and on the interaction between activities and their impacts on coastal zones. To this end, they s hould establish or support specialized research centres. The purpose of this research is, in particular, to further knowledge of integrated coastal zone management, to contribute to public information and to facilitate public and private decision-making.
1. The Parties shall use and strengthen existing appropriate mechanisms for monitoring and observation, or create new ones if necessary. They shall also prepare and regularly update national invent ories of coastal zones which should cover, to the extent possible, informat ion on resources and acti vities, as well as on institutions, legislat ion and planning that may influence coastal zones.
2. In order to promote exchange of scientific experience, data and good practices, the Parties shall participat e, at the appropriate administrative and scientific level, in a Mediterranean coasta l zone network, in cooperation with the Organization.
3. With a view to facilitating t he regular observation of the state and evolution of coastal zones, the Parties shall set out an agreed reference format and process to collect appropriate data in national inventories.
The Parties undertake to cooperate for the promotion of sustainable development and integrated management of coastal zones, taking into account the Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainabl e Development and complementing it where necessary. To this end, the Parties s hall define, with the assistance of the Centre, a common regional framework fo r integrated coastal zone management in the Mediterranean to be implemented by means of appropriate regional action plans and other operational instruments, as well as through their national strategies.
1. Each Party shall further strengthen or formulate a national strategy for integrated coastal zone management and coastal implement ation plans and programmes consistent with the common regional framework and in conformity with the integrated management objectives and principles of this Protocol and shall inform the Organization about the coor dination mechanism in place for this strategy.
2. The national strategy, based on an analysi s of the existing situation, shall set objectives, determine pr iorities with an indicati on of the reasons, identify coastal ecosystems needing management, as well as all relevant actors and processes, enumerate the measures to be taken and their cost as well as the institutional instruments and legal and financial means available, and set an implementation schedule.
3. Coastal plans and programmes, which may be self-standing or integrated in other plans and programmes, shall spec ify the orientations of the national strategy and implement it at an appropria te territorial level, determining, inter alia and where appropriate, the carrying capacit ies and conditions for the allocation and use of the respective marine and land parts of coastal zones.
1. Taking into account the fragility of coastal zones, the Parties shall ensure that the process and related studies of environmental impact assessment for public and private projects likely to have significant environmental effects on the coastal zones, and in particular on their ec osystems, take into consideration the specific sensitivity of the environment and the inter-relationships between the marine and terrestrial parts of the coastal zone.
1. For the purpose of promoting integrated coastal zone management, reducing economic pressures, main taining open areas and allowing public access to the sea and along the shore, Parties shall adopt appropriate land policy instruments and measures, incl uding the process of planning.
Within the framework of national st rategies for integrated coastal zone management, the Parties shall develop polic ies for the prevention of natural hazards. To this end, they shall underta ke vulnerability and hazard assessments of coastal zones and take prevention, mitigation and adaptat ion measures to address the effects of natural disasters, in particular of climate change.
1. In conformity with the objectives and principles set out in Articles 5 and 6 of this Protocol, the Parties, with a view to preventing and mitigating the negative impact of coastal erosion more effect ively, undertake to adopt the necessary measures to maintain or restore the nat ural capacity of the coast to adapt to changes, including those caused by the rise in sea levels.
2. The Parties, when considering new activities and works located in the coastal zone including marine structures and coastal defence works, shall take particular account of their negative effe cts on coastal erosion and the direct and indirect costs that may result. In respec t of existing activiti es and structures, the Parties should adopt measures to minimize their effe cts on coastal erosion.
3. The Parties shall endeavour to antici pate the impacts of coastal erosion through the integrated management of acti vities, including adoption of special measures for coastal sedi ments and coastal works.
2. The Parties undertake to coordinate use of the equipment for detection, warning and communication at their disposal, making us e of existing mechanisms and initiatives, to ensure the transmissi on as rapidly as possible of urgent information concerning major natural di sasters. The Parties shall notify the Organization which national authorities are competent to issue and receive such information in the context of rele vant international mechanisms.
3. The Parties undertake to promot e mutual cooperation and cooperation among national, regional and local authorit ies, non-governmental organizations and other competent organizations for the provision on an urgent basis of humanitarian assistance in re sponse to natural disaster s affecting the coastal zones of the Mediterranean Sea.
1. The Parties undertake, directly or with the assistance of the Organization or the competent international organiza tions, to cooperate in the training of scientific, technical and administrative pers onnel in the field of integrated coastal zone management, particularly with a view to:
2. The Parties undertake, directly or wi th the assistance of the Organization or the competent international organizati ons, to promote scientific and technical research into integrated coastal zone management, particularly through the exchange of scientific and technical info rmation and the coor dination of their research programmes on themes of common interest.
For the purposes of integrated coastal zone management, the Parties undertake, directly or with the assistanc e of the Organization or the competent international organizations to cooperate for the provision of scientific and technical assistance, including access to environmentally sound technologies and their transfer, and other possible forms of assistance, to Parties requiring such assistance.
1. The Parties undertake, directly or wi th the assistance of the Organization or the competent international organiza tions, to cooperate in the exchange of information on the use of the best environmental practices.
The Parties shall endeavour, directly or with the assistance of the Organization or the competent internat ional organizations, bilaterally or multilaterally, to coordinate, where appropr iate, their national coastal strategies, plans and programmes related to conti guous coastal zones. Relevant domestic administrative bodies shall be associ ated with such coordination.
1. Within the framework of this Protoc ol, the Parties shall, before authorizing or approving plans, programmes and projects that are likely to have a significant adverse effect on the coastal zones of other Parties, cooperate by means of notification, exchange of informati on and consultation in assessing the environmental impacts of such plans, programmes and projects, taking into account Article 19 of this Protocol and Article 4, paragraph 3 (d) of the Convention.
2. To this end, the Parties undertake to cooperate in the formulation and adoption of appropriate guidelines for the determination of procedures for notification, exchange of information and cons ultation at all stages of the process.
Each Party shall designate a Focal Point to serve as liaison with the Centre on the technical and scientific aspects of the implementation of this Protocol and to disseminate information at the national, regional and local level. The Focal Points shall meet periodically to carry out the functions deriving from this Protocol.
The Parties shall submit to the ordinary Meetings of the Contracting Parties, reports on the implementation of this Protocol, in such form and at such intervals as these Meetings may determi ne, including the meas ures taken, their effectiveness and the problems encounter ed in their implementation.
1. The Organization shall be responsible for coordinating t he implementation of this Protocol. For this purpose, it s hall receive the support of the Centre, to which it may entrust the following functions:
1. The ordinary meetings of the Partie s to this Protocol shall be held in conjunction with the ordinary meetings of the Contracting Parties to the Convention held pursuant to Article 18 of the Convention. The Parties may also hold extraordinary meetings in c onformity with that Article.