Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. (Source: 1996 World Food Summit)
1.1 1.1 The objectives of this Treaty are the conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of their use, in harmony with the Convention on Biological Diversity, for sustainable agriculture and food security.
Cognizant that plant genetic resources for food and agriculture are a common concern of all countries, in that all countries depend very largely on plant genetic resources for food and agriculture that originated elsewhere;
Acknowledging that the conservation, exploration, collection, characterization, evaluation and documentation of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture are essential in meeting the goals of the Rome Declaration on World Food Security and the World Food Summit Plan of Action and for sustainable agricultural development for this and future generations, and that the capacity of developing countries and countries with economies in transition to undertake such tasks needs urgently to be reinforced;
Sustainable Use of Plant Genetic Resources
(f) f) supporting, as appropriate, the wider use of diversity of varieties and species in on-farm management, conservation and sustainable use of crops and creating strong links to plant breeding and agricultural development in order to reduce crop vulnerability and genetic erosion, and promote increased world food production compatible with sustainable development; and
Facilitated access to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture within the Multilateral System
(a) a) Access shall be provided solely for the purpose of utilization and conservation for research, breeding and training for food and agriculture, provided that such purpose does not include chemical, pharmaceutical and/or other non-food/feed industrial uses. In the case of multiple-use crops (food and non-food), their importance for food security should be the determinant for their inclusion in the Multilateral System and availability for facilitated access.
13. Recognizing the importance of genetic resources to food security, public health, biodiversity conservation, and the mitigation and adaptation to climate change,
(c) (c) Consider the importance of genetic resources for food and agriculture and their special role for food security.
Mindful that desertification and drought affect sustainable development through their interrelationships with important social problems such as poverty, poor health and nutrition, lack of food security, and those arising from migration, displacement of persons and demographic dynamics,
National Action Programmes
(c) establishment and/or strengthening, as appropriate, of food security systems, including storage and marketing facilities, particularly in rural areas;
Minamata Convention on Mercury
Noting the particular vulnerabilities of Arctic ecosystems and indigenous communities because of the biomagnification of mercury and contamination of traditional foods, and concerned about indigenous communities more generally with respect to the effects of mercury,
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
The Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets
I. THE RATIONALE FOR THE PLAN Biological diversity underpins ecosystem functioning and the provision of ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It provides for food security, human health, the provision of clean air and water; it contributes to local livelihoods, and economic development, and is essential for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, including poverty reduction. The Convention on Biological Diversity has three objectives: the conservation of biological diversity; the sustainable use of its components; and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources. In the Convention’s first Strategic Plan, adopted in 2002, the Parties committed themselves “to a more effective and coherent implementation of the three objectives of the Convention, to achieve by 2010 a significant reduction of the current rate of biodiversity loss at the global, regional and national level as a contribution to poverty alleviation and to the benefit of all life on Earth.” The third edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO-3), drawing upon national reports, indicators and research studies, assesses progress towards the 2010 target, and provides scenarios for the future of biodiversity. The 2010 biodiversity target has inspired action at many levels. However, such actions have not been on a scale sufficient to address the pressures on biodiversity. Moreover there has been insufficient integration of biodiversity issues into broader policies, strategies, programmes and actions, and therefore the underlying drivers of biodiversity loss have not been significantly reduced. While there is now some understanding of the linkages between biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being, the value of biodiversity is still not reflected in broader policies and incentive structures. Most Parties identify a lack of financial, human and technical resources as limiting their implementation of the Convention. Technology transfer under the Convention has been very limited. Insufficient scientific information for policy and decision making is a further obstacle for the implementation of the Convention. However, scientific uncertainty should not be used as an excuse for inaction. The 2010 biodiversity target has not been achieved, at least not at the global level. The diversity of genes, species and ecosystems continues to decline, as the pressures on biodiversity remain constant or increase in intensity mainly, as a result of human actions. Scientific consensus projects a continuing loss of habitats and high rates of extinctions throughout this century if current trends persist, with the risk of drastic consequences to human societies as several thresholds or “tipping points” are crossed. Unless urgent action is taken to reverse current trends, a wide range of services derived from ecosystems, underpinned by biodiversity, could rapidly be lost. While the harshest impacts will fall on the poor, thereby undermining efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, no-one will be immune from the impacts of the loss of biodiversity. On the other hand, scenario analysis reveals a wide range of options for addressing the crisis. Determined action to value and protect biodiversity will benefit people in many ways, including through better health, greater food security and less poverty. It will also help to slow climate change by enabling ecosystems to store and absorb more carbon; and it will help people adapt to climate change by adding resilience to ecosystems and making them less vulnerable. Better protection of biodiversity is therefore a prudent and cost-effective investment in risk reduction for the global community. Achieving this positive outcome requires actions at multiple entry points, which are reflected in the goals of this Strategic Plan.
The Parties to this Agreement,
Recognizing the fundamental priority of safeguarding food security and ending hunger, and the particular vulnerabilities of food production systems to the adverse impacts of climate change,
(b) Increasing the ability to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change and foster climate resilience and low greenhouse gas emissions development, in a manner that does not threaten food production; and
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