Aware of the health concerns, especially in developing countries, resulting from local exposure to persistent organic pollutants, in particular impacts upon women and, through them, upon future generations
Acknowledging that the Arctic ecosystems and indigenous communities are particularly at risk because of the biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants and that contamination of their traditional foods is a public health issue,
Mindful of decision 19/13 C of 7 February 1997 of the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme to initiate international action to protect human health and the environment through measures which will reduce and/or eliminate emissions and discharges of persistent organic pollutants,
Measures to Reduce or Eliminate Releases from Stockpiles and Wastes
1 1. In order to ensure that stockpiles consisting of or containing chemicals listed either in Annex A or Annex B and wastes, including products and articles upon becoming wastes, consisting of, containing or contaminated with a chemical listed in Annex A, B or C, are managed in a manner protective of human health and the environment, each Party shall:
5. For the purposes of this Convention, information on health and safety of humans and the environment shall not be regarded as confidential. Parties that exchange other information pursuant to this Convention shall protect any confidential information as mutually agreed.
Public information, awareness and education
(c) Development and implementation, especially for women, children and the least educated, of educational and public awareness programmes on persistent organic pollutants, as well as on their health and environmental effects and on their alternatives;
Research, Development and Monitoring
(d) Effects on human health and the environment;
Mindful of the precautionary approach as set forth in Principle 15 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, the objective of this Convention is to protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants.
Protocol on Water and Health
Treaty is tagged with health
Aware of the risk of damage to human health and the environment caused by hazardous wastes and other wastes and the transboundary movement thereof,
Mindful of the growing threat to human health and the environment posed by the increased generation and complexity, and transboundary movement of hazardous wastes and other wastes,
Aware also that transboundary movements of such wastes from the State of their generation to any other State should be permitted only when conducted under conditions which do not endanger human health and the environment, and under conditions in conformity with the provisions of this Convention,
Determined to protect, by strict control, human health and the environment against the adverse effects which may result from the generation and management of hazardous wastes and other wastes,
(b) Co-operate in monitoring the effects of the management of hazardous wastes on human health and the environment;
Transmission of Information
(d) Information on available qualified statistics which have been compiled by them on the effects on human health and the environment of the generation, transportation and disposal of hazardous wastes or other wastes;
The Parties to this Convention
Aware of the harmful impact on human health and the environment from certain hazardous chemicals and pesticides in international trade,
Determined to protect human health, including the health of consumers and workers, and the environment against potentially harmful impacts from certain hazardous chemicals and pesticides in international trade,
Hazardous Wastes Protocol
The Contracting Parties to the present Protocol,
Convinced that the most effective way of protecting human health and the marine environment from the dangers posed by hazardous wastes is the reduction and elimination of their generation, for example through substitution and other clean production methods,
Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution
Article 7: RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
(d) The effects of sulphur compounds and other major air pollutants on human health and the environment, including agriculture, forestry, materials, aquatic and other natural ecosystems and visibility, with a view to establishing a scientific basis for dose/effect relationships designed to protect the environment;
In order to contribute to the protection of the right of every person of present and future generations to live in an environment adequate to his or her health and well-being, each Party shall guarantee the rights of access to information, public participation in decision-making, and access to justice in environmental matters in accordance with the provisions of this Convention.
(c) In the event of any imminent threat to human health or the environment, whether caused by human activities or due to natural causes, all information which could enable the public to take measures to prevent or mitigate harm arising from the threat and is held by a public authority is disseminated immediately and without delay to members of the public who may be affected.
Recognizing also that every person has the right to live in an environment adequate to his or her health and well-being, and the duty, both individually and in association with others, to protect and improve the environment for the benefit of present and future generations,
The Governments of:
Realizing that pollution of the marine environment in the waters of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden by oil and other harmful or noxious materials arising from human activities on land or at sea, especially through indiscriminate and uncontrolled discharge of these substances, presents a growing threat to marine life, fisheries, human health, recreational uses of beaches and other amenities.
Minamata Convention on Mercury
Recognizing that mercury is a chemical of global concern owing to its long-range atmospheric transport, its persistence in the environment once anthropogenically introduced, its ability to bioaccumulate in ecosystems and its significant negative effects on human health and the environment,
Aware of the health concerns, especially in developing countries, resulting from exposure to mercury of vulnerable populations, especially women, children, and, through them, future generations,
Recognizing the substantial lessons of Minamata Disease, in particular the serious health and environmental effects resulting from the mercury pollution, and the need to ensure proper management of mercury and the prevention of such events in the future,
Article 1 Objective
The objective of this Convention is to protect the human health and the environment from anthropogenic emissions and releases of mercury and mercury compounds.
Article 4 Mercury-added products
6. Each Party shall discourage the manufacture and the distribution in commerce of mercury-added products not covered by any known use of mercury-added products prior to the date of entry into force of the Convention for it, unless an assessment of the risks and benefits of the product demonstrates environmental or human health benefits. A Party shall provide to the Secretariat, as appropriate, information on any such product, including any information on the environmental and human health risks and benefits of the product. The Secretariat shall make such information publicly available.
Article 12 Contaminated sites
2. Any actions to reduce the risks posed by such sites shall be performed in an environmentally sound manner incorporating, where appropriate, an assessment of the risks to human health and the environment from the mercury or mercury compounds they contain.
Convention on Biological Diversity
The Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets
I. THE RATIONALE FOR THE PLAN Biological diversity underpins ecosystem functioning and the provision of ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It provides for food security, human health, the provision of clean air and water; it contributes to local livelihoods, and economic development, and is essential for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, including poverty reduction. The Convention on Biological Diversity has three objectives: the conservation of biological diversity; the sustainable use of its components; and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources. In the Convention’s first Strategic Plan, adopted in 2002, the Parties committed themselves “to a more effective and coherent implementation of the three objectives of the Convention, to achieve by 2010 a significant reduction of the current rate of biodiversity loss at the global, regional and national level as a contribution to poverty alleviation and to the benefit of all life on Earth.” The third edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO-3), drawing upon national reports, indicators and research studies, assesses progress towards the 2010 target, and provides scenarios for the future of biodiversity. The 2010 biodiversity target has inspired action at many levels. However, such actions have not been on a scale sufficient to address the pressures on biodiversity. Moreover there has been insufficient integration of biodiversity issues into broader policies, strategies, programmes and actions, and therefore the underlying drivers of biodiversity loss have not been significantly reduced. While there is now some understanding of the linkages between biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being, the value of biodiversity is still not reflected in broader policies and incentive structures. Most Parties identify a lack of financial, human and technical resources as limiting their implementation of the Convention. Technology transfer under the Convention has been very limited. Insufficient scientific information for policy and decision making is a further obstacle for the implementation of the Convention. However, scientific uncertainty should not be used as an excuse for inaction. The 2010 biodiversity target has not been achieved, at least not at the global level. The diversity of genes, species and ecosystems continues to decline, as the pressures on biodiversity remain constant or increase in intensity mainly, as a result of human actions. Scientific consensus projects a continuing loss of habitats and high rates of extinctions throughout this century if current trends persist, with the risk of drastic consequences to human societies as several thresholds or “tipping points” are crossed. Unless urgent action is taken to reverse current trends, a wide range of services derived from ecosystems, underpinned by biodiversity, could rapidly be lost. While the harshest impacts will fall on the poor, thereby undermining efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, no-one will be immune from the impacts of the loss of biodiversity. On the other hand, scenario analysis reveals a wide range of options for addressing the crisis. Determined action to value and protect biodiversity will benefit people in many ways, including through better health, greater food security and less poverty. It will also help to slow climate change by enabling ecosystems to store and absorb more carbon; and it will help people adapt to climate change by adding resilience to ecosystems and making them less vulnerable. Better protection of biodiversity is therefore a prudent and cost-effective investment in risk reduction for the global community. Achieving this positive outcome requires actions at multiple entry points, which are reflected in the goals of this Strategic Plan.
Target 14: By 2020, ecosystems that provide essential services, including services related to water, and contribute to health, livelihoods and well-being, are restored and safeguarded, taking into account the needs of women, indigenous and local communities, and the poor and vulnerable.
The Parties to this Agreement,
Acknowledging that climate change is a common concern of humankind, Parties should, when taking action to address climate change, respect, promote and consider their respective obligations on human rights, the right to health, the rights of indigenous peoples, local communities, migrants, children, persons with disabilities and people in vulnerable situations and the right to development, as well as gender equality, empowerment of women and intergenerational equity,