Conservation, Exploration, Collection, Characterization, Evaluation and Documentation
(a) a) Survey and inventory plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, taking into account the status and degree of variation in existing populations, including those that are of potential use and, as feasible, assess any threats to them;
(f) f) Monitor the maintenance of the viability, degree of variation, and the genetic integrity of collections of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture.
Sustainable Use of Plant Genetic Resources
(g) g) reviewing, and, as appropriate, adjusting breeding strategies and regulations concerning variety release and seed distribution.
Research, Development and Monitoring
(a) Sources and releases into the environment;
2. In order to facilitate such evaluation, the Conference of the Parties shall, at its first meeting, initiate the establishment of arrangements to provide itself with comparable monitoring data on the presence of the chemicals listed in Annexes A, B and C as well as their regional and global environmental transport. These arrangements:
(a) Should be implemented by the Parties on a regional basis when appropriate, in accordance with their technical and financial capabilities, using existing monitoring programmes and mechanisms to the extent possible and promoting harmonization of approaches;
(b) May be supplemented where necessary, taking into account the differences between regions and their capabilities to implement monitoring activities; and
(c) Shall include reports to the Conference of the Parties on the results of the monitoring activities on a regional and global basis at intervals to be specified by the Conference of the Parties.
(b) Co-operate in monitoring the effects of the management of hazardous wastes on human health and the environment;
Convention on Migratory Species
Guidelines for AGREEMENTS
4. 4. Each AGREEMENT should:
d) d) establish, if necessary, appropriate machinery to assist in carrying out the aims of the AGREEMENT, to monitor its effectiveness, and to prepare reports for the Conference of the Parties;
Convention on Biological Diversity
Identification and Monitoring
(a) (a) Identify components of biological diversity important for its conservation and sustainable use having regard to the indicative list of categories set down in Annex I;
(b) (b) Monitor, through sampling and other techniques, the components of biological diversity identified pursuant to subparagraph (a) above, paying particular attention to those requiring urgent conservation measures and those which offer the greatest potential for sustainable use;
(c) (c) Identify processes and categories of activities which have or are likely to have significant adverse impacts on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, and monitor their effects through sampling and other techniques; and
(d) (d) Maintain and organize, by any mechanism data, derived from identification and monitoring activities pursuant to subparagraphs (a), (b) and (c) above
Research and Training
(a) (a) Establish and maintain programmes for scientific and technical education and training in measures for the identification, conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity and its components and provide support for such education and training for the specific needs of developing countries;
The Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets
Support mechanisms for research, monitoring and assessment. The following are key elements to ensure effective implementation of the Strategic Plan: (a) Global monitoring of biodiversity: work is needed to monitor the status and trends of biodiversity, maintain and share data, and develop and use indicators and agreed measures of biodiversity and ecosystem change; (b) Regular assessment of the state of biodiversity and ecosystem services, future scenarios and effectiveness of responses: this could be provided through an enhanced role for the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice as well as the proposed intergovernmental platform on biodiversity and ecosystem services; (c) Ongoing research on biodiversity and ecosystem function and services and their relationship to human well being; (d) The contributions of knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities relevant to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity to all the above; (e) Capacity building and timely, adequate, predictable and sustainable financial and technical resources
(g) Promote the generation and use of scientific information, develop methodologies and initiatives to monitor status and trends of biodiversity and ecosystem services, share data, develop indicators and measures, and undertake regular and timely assessments, to underpin the proposed new intergovernmental science-policy platform on biodiversity and ecosystem services (IPBES) and an effective Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice in order to strengthen the science policy interface, thereby enhancing the implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020;
V. IMPLEMENTATION, MONITORING, REVIEW AND EVALUATION Means for implementation: The Strategic Plan will be implemented primarily through activities at the national or subnational level, with supporting action at the regional and global levels. The means of implementation for this Strategic Plan will include provision of financial resources in accordance with respective obligations under the Convention, taking into account Article 20 of the Convention. The Strategic Plan provides a flexible framework for the establishment of national and regional targets. National biodiversity strategies and action plans are key instruments for translating the Strategic Plan to national circumstances, including through the national targets, and for integrating biodiversity across all sectors of government and society. The participation of all relevant stakeholders should be promoted and facilitated at all levels of implementation. Initiatives and activities of indigenous and local communities, contributing to the implementation of the Strategic Plan at the local level, should be supported and encouraged. The means for implementation may vary from country to country, according to national needs and circumstances. Nonetheless, countries should learn from each other when determining appropriate means for implementation. It is in this spirit that examples of the possible means for implementation are provided in the note by the Executive Secretary on the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020: provisional technical rationale, possible indicators and suggested milestones for the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. It is envisaged that implementation will be further supported by the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of the Benefits Arising from their Utilization and other components of the international regime on access and benefit sharing which will facilitate the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources. The programmes of work: The thematic programmes of work of the Convention include: biodiversity of inland waters, marine and coastal biodiversity, agricultural biodiversity, forest biodiversity, biodiversity of dry and sub-humid lands, mountain biodiversity and island biodiversity. Together with the various cross-cutting issues they provide detailed guidance on implementation of the Strategic Plan, and could also contribute to development and poverty reduction. They are key tools to be considered in the updating of national biodiversity strategies and action plans. Broadening political support for this Strategic Plan and the objectives of the Convention is necessary, for example, by working to ensure that Heads of State and Government and the parliamentarians of all Parties understand the value of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Parties to the Convention should be encouraged to establish national biodiversity targets that support the achievement of the Strategic Plan and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and outline the measures and activities that will achieve this, such as the development of comprehensive national accounting, as appropriate, that integrates the values of biodiversity and ecosystem services into government decision-making with the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities and other stakeholders. Partnerships at all levels are required for effective implementation of the Strategic Plan, to leverage actions at the scale necessary, to garner the ownership necessary to ensure mainstreaming of biodiversity across sectors of government, society and the economy and to find synergies with national implementation of multilateral environmental agreements. Partnerships with the programmes, funds and specialized agencies of the United Nations system, as well as with other conventions and multilateral and bilateral agencies, foundations, women, indigenous and local communities, and non-governmental organizations, will be essential to support implementation of the Strategic Plan at the national level. At the international level, this requires partnerships between the Convention and other conventions, international organizations and processes, civil society and the private sector. In particular, efforts will be needed to: (a) Ensure that the Convention, through its new Strategic Plan, contributes to sustainable development and the elimination of poverty, and the other Millennium Development Goals; (b) Ensure cooperation to achieve implementation of the Plan in different sectors; (c) Promote biodiversity-friendly practice by business; and (d) Promote synergy and coherence in the implementation of the multilateral environmental agreements. Reporting by Parties: Parties will inform the Conference of the Parties of the national targets or commitments and policy instruments they adopt to implement the Strategic Plan, as well as any milestones towards these targets, and report on progress towards these targets and milestones, including through their fifth and sixth national reports. Suggested milestones, as well as suggested indicators, are to be developed in accordance with the processes laid out in paragraphs 3 (b), (e) and 17 (g) of decision X/2 on the Strategic Plan as well as decision X/7 on goals, targets and associated indicators. Parliamentarians, by responding to the needs and expectations of citizens on a regular basis, should play a role in reviewing the implementation of the Convention at the national and subnational levels, as appropriate, to help Governments produce a more comprehensive review. Review by the Conference of the Parties: The Conference of the Parties, with the support of other Convention bodies, in particular the Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group on Review of Implementation of the Convention, will keep under review implementation of this Strategic Plan, and support effective implementation by Parties ensuring that new guidance is informed by the experience of Parties in implementing the Convention, in line with the principle of adaptive management through active learning. The Conference of the Parties will review the progress towards the Aichi Biodiversity Targets as set out in the Strategic Plan and make recommendations to overcome any obstacles encountered in meeting those targets, including revision of the provisional technical rationale, possible indicators and suggested milestones for the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and measures contained therein, and, as appropriate, to strengthen the mechanisms to support implementation, monitoring and review. To facilitate this work, the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA) should develop a common set of biodiversity metrics to be used to assess the status of biodiversity and its values.
(e) Monitor and review the implementation of their national biodiversity strategies and action plans in accordance with the Strategic Plan and their national targets making use of the set of indicators developed for the Strategic Plan as a flexible framework and to report to the Conference of the Parties through their fifth and sixth national reports and any other means to be decided by the Conference of the Parties;
Monitoring the Utilization of Genetic Resources
Article is tagged with monitoring
Monitoring and Reporting
Each Party shall monitor the implementation of its obligations under this Protocol, and shall, at intervals and in the format to be determined by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol, report to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol on measures that it has taken to implement this Protocol.
Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds
General Conservation Measures
(h) (h) initiate or support research into the biology and ecology of migratory waterbirds including the harmonization of research and monitoring methods and, where appropriate, the establishment of joint or cooperative research and monitoring programmes;
Monitoring and Reporting
Each Party shall monitor the implementation of its obligations under this Protocol, and shall, at intervals to be determined by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol, report to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol on measures that it has taken to implement the Protocol.
Assessment and Review
The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol shall undertake, five years after the entry into force of this Protocol and at least every five years thereafter, an evaluation of the effectiveness of the Protocol, including an assessment of its procedures and annexes.
Article 10 MONITORING
Article is tagged with monitoring
Article 14 MEETINGS OF THE CONTRACTING PARTIES
2. It shall be the function of the meetings of the Contracting Parties to keep under review the implementation of this Convention and the Protocols and, in particular: (i) to review gradually the inventories carried out by Contracting Parties and competent international organizations on the state of marine pollution and its effects in the Mediterranean Sea area;
Specially Protected Areas and Biodiversity Protocol
Article 7 Planning and Management
Article is tagged with monitoring
Article 3 General Obligations
5. The Parties shall monitor the components of biological diversity referred to in paragraph 3 of this Article and shall identify processes and categories of activities which have or are likely to have a significant adverse impact on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, and monitor their effects.
Hazardous Wastes Protocol
ARTICLE 9 ILLEGAL TRAFFIC
(c) The establishment of a mechanism to prevent and monitor illegal traffic in hazardous wastes in the Mediterranean.
Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution
Article 9: IMPLEMENTATION AND FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF THE COOPERATIVE PROGRAMME FOR THE MONITORING AND EVALUATION OF THE LONG-RANGE TRANSMISSION OF AIR POLLUTANTS IN EUROPE
Article is tagged with monitoring
The Contracting Parties, within the framework of the present Convention, shall by means of exchanges of information, consultation, research and monitoring, develop without undue delay policies and strategies which shall serve as a means of combating the discharge of air pollutants, taking into account efforts already made at national and international levels.
Article 7: RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
(b) Instrumentation and other techniques for monitoring and measuring emission rates and ambient concentrations of air pollutants;
The Contracting Parties,
Realizing also the need for a carefully planned research, monitoring and assessment programme in view of the scarcity of scientific information on marine pollution in the West and Central African Region,
Article 17 : MEETINGS OF THE CONTRACTING PARTIES
v.To review the state of pollution in the Convention area;
Scientific and technical co-operation
Article XVIII: Duties and Functions of the Council
(f) To review and evaluate the state of the marine environment and coastal areas on the basis of reports provided by the Contracting Parties, or by the international organizations concerned.
ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution
PART II. MONITORING, ASSESSMENT, PREVENTION AND RESPONSE Article 5 ASEAN Co-ordinating Centre for Transboundary Haze Pollution Control
Article is tagged with monitoring
Article 7 Monitoring
Article is tagged with monitoring
Article 2 Objective
The objective of this Agreement is to prevent and monitor transboundary haze pollution as a result of land and/or forest fires which should be mitigated, through concerted national efforts and intensified regional and international co-operation. This should be pursued in the overall context of sustainable development and in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.
Article 3 Principles
2. The Parties shall, in the spirit of solidarity and partnership and in accordance with their respective needs, capabilities and situations, strengthen co-operation and co-ordination to prevent and monitor transboundary haze pollution as a result of land and/or forest fires which should be mitigated.
Article 4 General Obligations
1. Co-operate in developing and implementing measures to prevent and monitor transboundary haze pollution as a result of land and/or forest fires which should be mitigated, and to control sources of fires, including by the identification of fires, development of monitoring, assessment and early warning systems, exchange of information and technology, and the provision of mutual assistance.
Article 9 Prevention
c. Identifying and monitoring areas prone to occurrence of land and/or forest fires;
(d) Monitoring and evaluating and learning from adaptation plans, policies, programmes and actions; and
Regional Agreement on Access to Information, Public Participation and Justice in Environmental Matters in Latin America and the Caribbean
Article 5 Access to environmental information
Independent oversight mechanisms
Accessibility of environmental information
Article 6 Generation and dissemination of environmental information
8. Each Party shall encourage independent environmental performance reviews that take into account nationally or internationally agreed criteria and guides and common indicators, with a view to evaluating the efficacy, effectiveness and progress of its national environmental policies in fulfilment of their national and international commitments. The reviews shall include participation by the various stakeholders.
Article 7 Public participation in the environmental decision-making process
(g) actions taken to monitor the implementation and results of environmental impact assessment measures.
Article 10 Capacity-building
(g) strengthen capabilities to collect, retain and evaluate environmental information.
Protocol on Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development
Article 1: Objectives and principles
m) monitoring of the agricultural and rural areas and their socio-economic development;
Article 17: Coordinated scientific research and trans-boundary exchange of information and experience
2. The Parties shall facilitate international cooperation among the scientific institutions with regard to local and regional horizontal and vertical cooperation in the Carpathians, in particular on the harmonization of monitoring systems, the provision and harmonization of databases, and undertaking common research programs and projects in the Carpathians.
Article 24: Monitoring of compliance with obligations