Recognizing that economic and social development and poverty eradication are the first and overriding priorities of developing countries,
4. 4. The extent to which developing country Parties will effectively implement their commitments under this Convention will depend on the effective implementation by developed country Parties of their commitments under this Convention related to financial resources and transfer of technology and will take fully into account the fact that economic and social development and eradication of poverty are the first and overriding priorities of the developing country Parties.
The Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets
Use the revised and updated national biodiversity strategies and action plans as effective instruments for the integration of biodiversity targets into national development and poverty reduction policies and strategies, national accounting, as appropriate, economic sectors and spatial planning processes, by Government and the private sector at all levels;
I. THE RATIONALE FOR THE PLAN Biological diversity underpins ecosystem functioning and the provision of ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It provides for food security, human health, the provision of clean air and water; it contributes to local livelihoods, and economic development, and is essential for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, including poverty reduction. The Convention on Biological Diversity has three objectives: the conservation of biological diversity; the sustainable use of its components; and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources. In the Convention’s first Strategic Plan, adopted in 2002, the Parties committed themselves “to a more effective and coherent implementation of the three objectives of the Convention, to achieve by 2010 a significant reduction of the current rate of biodiversity loss at the global, regional and national level as a contribution to poverty alleviation and to the benefit of all life on Earth.” The third edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO-3), drawing upon national reports, indicators and research studies, assesses progress towards the 2010 target, and provides scenarios for the future of biodiversity. The 2010 biodiversity target has inspired action at many levels. However, such actions have not been on a scale sufficient to address the pressures on biodiversity. Moreover there has been insufficient integration of biodiversity issues into broader policies, strategies, programmes and actions, and therefore the underlying drivers of biodiversity loss have not been significantly reduced. While there is now some understanding of the linkages between biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being, the value of biodiversity is still not reflected in broader policies and incentive structures. Most Parties identify a lack of financial, human and technical resources as limiting their implementation of the Convention. Technology transfer under the Convention has been very limited. Insufficient scientific information for policy and decision making is a further obstacle for the implementation of the Convention. However, scientific uncertainty should not be used as an excuse for inaction. The 2010 biodiversity target has not been achieved, at least not at the global level. The diversity of genes, species and ecosystems continues to decline, as the pressures on biodiversity remain constant or increase in intensity mainly, as a result of human actions. Scientific consensus projects a continuing loss of habitats and high rates of extinctions throughout this century if current trends persist, with the risk of drastic consequences to human societies as several thresholds or “tipping points” are crossed. Unless urgent action is taken to reverse current trends, a wide range of services derived from ecosystems, underpinned by biodiversity, could rapidly be lost. While the harshest impacts will fall on the poor, thereby undermining efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, no-one will be immune from the impacts of the loss of biodiversity. On the other hand, scenario analysis reveals a wide range of options for addressing the crisis. Determined action to value and protect biodiversity will benefit people in many ways, including through better health, greater food security and less poverty. It will also help to slow climate change by enabling ecosystems to store and absorb more carbon; and it will help people adapt to climate change by adding resilience to ecosystems and making them less vulnerable. Better protection of biodiversity is therefore a prudent and cost-effective investment in risk reduction for the global community. Achieving this positive outcome requires actions at multiple entry points, which are reflected in the goals of this Strategic Plan.
Target 2: By 2020, at the latest, biodiversity values have been integrated into national and local development and poverty reduction strategies and planning processes and are being incorporated into national accounting, as appropriate, and reporting systems.
Target 14: By 2020, ecosystems that provide essential services, including services related to water, and contribute to health, livelihoods and well-being, are restored and safeguarded, taking into account the needs of women, indigenous and local communities, and the poor and vulnerable.
7. Acknowledging the potential role of access and benefit-sharing to contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, poverty eradication and environmental sustainability and thereby contributing to achieving the Millennium Development Goals,
Financial Resources and Mechanisms
4. The extent to which the developing country Parties will effectively implement their commitments under this Convention will depend on the effective implementation by developed country Parties of their commitments under this Convention relating to financial resources, technical assistance and technology transfer. The fact that sustainable economic and social development and eradication of poverty are the first and overriding priorities of the developing country Parties will be taken fully into account, giving due consideration to the need for the protection of human health and the environment.
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Affirming that responses to climate change should be coordinated with social and economic development in an integrated manner with a view to avoiding adverse impacts on the latter, taking into full account the legitimate priority needs of developing countries for the achievement of sustained economic growth and the eradication of poverty,
7. 7. The extent to which developing country Parties will effectively implement their commitments under the Convention will depend on the effective implementation by developed country Parties of their commitments under the Convention related to financial resources and transfer of technology and will take fully into account that economic and social development and poverty eradication are the first and overriding priorities of the developing country Parties.
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
Conscious that sustainable economic growth, social development and poverty eradication are priorities of affected developing countries, particularly in Africa, and are essential to meeting sustainability objectives,
Mindful that desertification and drought affect sustainable development through their interrelationships with important social problems such as poverty, poor health and nutrition, lack of food security, and those arising from migration, displacement of persons and demographic dynamics,
(c) integrate strategies for poverty eradication into efforts to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought;
National Action Programmes
4. Taking into account the circumstances and requirements specific to each affected country Party, national action programmes include, as appropriate, inter alia, measures in some or all of the following priority fields as they relate to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought in affected areas and to their populations: promotion of alternative livelihoods and improvement of national economic environments with a view to strengthening programmes aimed at the eradication of poverty and at ensuring food security; demographic dynamics; sustainable management of natural resources; sustainable agricultural practices; development and efficient use of various energy sources; institutional and legal frameworks; strengthening of capabilities for assessment and systematic observation, including hydrological and meteorological services, and capacity building, education and public awareness.
Rersearch and Development
(e) take into account, where relevant, the relationship between poverty, migration caused by environmental factors, and desertification;
The Parties to this Agreement,
Emphasizing the intrinsic relationship that climate change actions, responses and impacts have with equitable access to sustainable development and eradication of poverty,
1. This Agreement, in enhancing the implementation of the Convention, including its objective, aims to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change, in the context of sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty, including by:
1. In order to achieve the long-term temperature goal set out in Article 2, Parties aim to reach global peaking of greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible, recognizing that peaking will take longer for developing country Parties, and to undertake rapid reductions thereafter in accordance with best available science, so as to achieve a balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases in the second half of this century, on the basis of equity, and in the context of sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty.
8. Parties recognize the importance of integrated, holistic and balanced non-market approaches being available to Parties to assist in the implementation of their nationally determined contributions, in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication, in a coordinated and effective manner, including through, inter alia, mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology transfer and capacitybuilding, as appropriate. These approaches shall aim to: