Stressing the importance of protecting and, as appropriate, improving the state of the Mediterranean natural and cultural heritage, in particular through the establishment of specially protected areas and also by the protection and conservation of threatened species,Tagged terms: cultural heritage
Considering that all the Contracting Parties should cooperate to conserve, protect and restore the health and integrity of ecosystems and that they have, in this respect, common but differentiated responsibilities,Tagged terms: common but differentiated responsibilities
Conscious that when there is a threat of significant reduction or loss of biological diversity, lack of full scientific certainty should not be invoked as a reason for postponing measures to avoid or minimize such a threat,Tagged terms: precautionary principle
(b) “Biological diversity” means the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems;Tagged terms: agrobiodiversity
(e) “Threatened species” means any species that is likely to become extinct within the foreseeable future throughout all or part of its range and whose survival is unlikely if the factors causing numerical decline or habitat degradation continue to operate;Tagged terms: endangered species
– the waters, the seabed and its subsoil on the landward side of the baseline from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured and extending, in the case of watercourses, up to the freshwater limit;
2. Nothing in this Protocol nor any act adopted on the basis of this Protocol shall prejudice the rights, the present and future claims or legal views of any State relating to the law of the sea, in particular, the nature and the extent of marine areas,the delimitation of marine areas between States with opposite or adjacent coasts, freedom of navigation on the high seas, the right and the modalities of passage through straits used for international navigation and the right of innocent passage in territorial seas, as well as the nature and extent of the jurisdiction of the coastal State, the flag State and the port State.Tagged terms: synergy
2. The Parties shall cooperate, directly or through the competent international organizations, in the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity in the area to which this Protocol applies.Tagged terms: international cooperation
4. The Parties shall adopt strategies, plans and programmes for the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of marine and coastal biological resources and shall integrate them into their relevant sectoral and intersectoral policies.Tagged terms: national strategy
5. The Parties shall monitor the components of biological diversity referred to in paragraph 3 of this Article and shall identify processes and categories of activities which have or are likely to have a significant adverse impact on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, and monitor their effects.Tagged terms: monitoring, evaluation
6. Each Party shall apply the measures provided for in this Protocol without prejudice to the sovereignty or the jurisdiction of other Parties or other States. Any measures taken by a Party to enforce these measures shall be in accordance with international law.Tagged terms: sovereignty
(b) habitats which are in danger of disappearing in their natural area of distribution in the Mediterranean or which have a reduced natural area of distribution as a consequence of their regression or on account of their intrinsically restricted area;
2. If a Party intends to establish, in an area subject to its sovereignty or nationaljurisdiction, a specially protected area contiguous to the frontier and to the limits of a zone subject to the sovereignty or national jurisdiction of another Party, the competent authorities of the two Parties shall endeavour to cooperate, with a view to reaching agreement on the measures to be taken and shall, inter alia, examine the possibility of the other Party establishing a corresponding specially protected area or adopting any other appropriate measures.Tagged terms: international cooperation
3. If a Party intends to establish, in an area subject to its sovereignty or national jurisdiction, a specially protected area contiguous to the frontier and to the limits of a zone subject to the sovereignty or national jurisdiction of a State that is not a Party to this Protocol, the Party shall endeavour to cooperate with that State as referred to in the previous paragraph.Tagged terms: international cooperation, non-party
4. If a State which is not party to this Protocol intends to establish a specially protected area contiguous to the frontier and to the limits of a zone subject to the sovereignty or national jurisdiction of a Party to this Protocol, the latter shall endeavour to cooperate with that State as referred to in paragraph 2.Tagged terms: international cooperation, non-party
(d) the regulation of the introduction of any species not indigenous to the specially protected area in question, or of genetically modified species, as well as the introduction or reintroduction of species which are or have been present in the specially protected area;Tagged terms: alien species
(g) the regulation or prohibition of fishing, hunting, taking of animals and harvesting of plants or their destruction, as well as trade in animals, parts of animals, plants, parts of plants, which originate in specially protected areas;Tagged terms: hunting
(h) the regulation and if necessary the prohibition of any other activity or act likely to harm or disturb the species or that might endanger the state of conservation of the ecosystems or species or might impair the natural or cultural characteristics of the specially protected area;
(c) the active involvement of local communities and populations, as appropriate, in the management of specially protected areas, including assistance to local inhabitants who might be affected by the establishment of such areas;Tagged terms: indigenous peoples
(d) the adoption of mechanisms for financing the promotion and management of specially protected areas, as well as the development of activities which ensure that management is compatible with the objectives of such areas;
4. When specially protected areas covering both land and marine areas have been established, the Parties shall endeavour to ensure the coordination of the administration and management of the specially protected area as a whole.Tagged terms: ecosystem management
1. In order to promote cooperation in the management and conservation of natural areas, as well as in the protection of threatened species and their habitats, the Parties shall draw up a “List of Specially Protected Areas of Mediterranean Importance”, hereinafter referred to as the “SPAMI List”.
3. Parties making proposals for inclusion in the SPAMI List shall provide the Centre with an introductory report containing information on the area’s geographical location, its physical and ecological characteristics, its legal status, its management plans and the means for their implementation, as well as a statement justifying its Mediterranean importance;
(a) where a proposal is formulated under subparagraphs 2 (b) and 2 (c) of this Article, the neighbouring Parties concerned shall consult each other with a view to ensuring the consistency of the proposed protection and management measures, as well as the means for their implementation;
(b) if a proposal made in accordance with subparagraph 2 (a) of this Article is consistent with the guidelines and common criteria, after assessment, the Organization shall inform the meeting of the Parties, which shall decide to include the area in the SPAMI List;
(c) if a proposal made in accordance with subparagraphs 2 (b) and 2 (c) of this Article is consistent with the guidelines and common criteria, the Centre shall transmit it to the Organization, which shall inform the meeting of the Parties. The decision to include the area in the SPAMI list shall be taken by consensus by the Contracting Parties, which shall also approve the management measures applicable to the area.
5. The Parties which proposed the inclusion of the area in the List shall implement the protection and conservation measures specified in their proposals in accordance with paragraph 3 of this Article. The Contracting Parties undertake to observe the rules thus laid down. The Centre shall inform the competent international organizations of the List and of the measures taken in the SPAMIs.
Changes in the delimitation or legal status of a SPAMI or the suppression of all or part of such an area shall not be decided upon unless there are important reasons for doing so, taking into account the need to safeguard the environment and comply with the obligations laid down in this Protocol and a procedure similar to that followed for the creation of the SPAMI and its inclusion in the List shall be observed.
2. The Parties shall, in the zones subject to their sovereignty or national jurisdiction, identify and compile lists of the endangered or threatened species of flora and fauna and accord protected status to such species. The Parties shall regulate and, where appropriate, prohibit activities having adverse effects on such species or their habitats, and carry out management, planning and other measures to ensure a favourable state of conservation of such species.
(a) the taking, possession or killing (including, to the extent possible, the incidental taking, possession or killing), the commercial trade, the transport and the exhibition for commercial purposes of these species, their eggs, parts or products;Tagged terms: hunting, trade in species
4. In addition to the measures specified in the previous paragraph, the Parties shall coordinate their efforts, through bilateral or multilateral action, including if necessary, agreements for the protection and recovery of migratory species whose range extends into the area to which this Protocol applies.Tagged terms: international cooperation, range state
5. With respect to protected species of flora and their parts and products, the Parties shall regulate, and where appropriate, prohibit all forms of destruction and disturbance, including the picking, collecting, cutting, uprooting, possession of, commercial trade in, or transport and exhibition for commercial purposes of such species.Tagged terms: species, trade in species
7. The Parties shall endeavour, directly or through the Centre, to consult with range States that are not Parties to this Protocol, with a view to coordinating their efforts to manage and protect endangered or threatened species.Tagged terms: non-party, range state
8. The Parties shall make provision, where possible, for the return of protected species exported or held illegally. Efforts should be made by Parties to reintroduce such specimens to their natural habitat.Tagged terms: illegal trade
1. The Parties shall adopt cooperative measures to ensure the protection and conservation of the flora and fauna listed in the Annexes to this Protocol relating to the List of Endangered or Threatened Species and the List of Species whose Exploitation is Regulated.Tagged terms: international cooperation
2. The Parties shall ensure the maximum possible protection and recovery of the species of fauna and flora listed in the Annex relating to the List of Endangered or Threatened Species by adopting at the national level the measures provided for in paragraphs 3 and 5 of Article 11 of this Protocol.Tagged terms: implementation, national strategy
3. The Parties shall prohibit the destruction of and damage to the habitat of species listed in the Annex relating to the List of Endangered or Threatened Species and shall formulate and implement action plans for their conservation or recovery. They shall continue to cooperate in implementing the relevant action plans already adopted.Tagged terms: national strategy
4. The Parties, in cooperation with competent international organizations, shall take all appropriate measures to ensure the conservation of the species listed in the Annex relating to the List of Species whose Exploitation is Regulated while at the same time authorizing and regulating the exploitation of these species so as to ensure and maintain their favourable state of conservation.Tagged terms: international cooperation
5. When the range area of a threatened or endangered species extends to both sides of a national frontier or of the limit that separates the territories or the areas subject to the sovereignty or the national jurisdiction of two Parties to this Protocol, these Parties shall cooperate with a view to ensuring the protection and conservation and, if necessary, the recovery of such species.Tagged terms: international cooperation
6. Provided that no other satisfactory solutions are available and that the exemption does not harm the survival of the population or of any other species, the Parties may grant exemptions to the prohibitions prescribed for the protection of the species listed in the Annexes to this Protocol for scientific, educational or management purposes necessary to ensure the survival of the species or to prevent significant damage. Such exemptions shall be notified to the Contracting Parties.Tagged terms: exemption
1. The Parties shall take all appropriate measures to regulate the intentional or accidental introduction of non-indigenous or genetically modified species to the wild and prohibit those that may have harmful impacts on the ecosystems, habitats or species in the area to which this Protocol applies.
(a) areas over which they exercise sovereignty or jurisdiction that contain rare or fragile ecosystems, that are reservoirs of biological diversity, that are important for threatened or endangered species;
In the planning process leading to decisions on industrial and other projects and activities that could significantly affect protected areas and species and their habitats, the Parties shall evaluate and take into consideration the possible direct or indirect, immediate or long-term, impact, including the cumulative impact of the projects and activities being contemplated.
1. In formulating protective measures, the Parties shall take into account the traditional subsistence and cultural activities of their local populations. They shall grant exemptions, as necessary, to meet such needs. No exemption which is allowed for this reason shall:Tagged terms: exemption
(b) cause either the extinction of, or a substantial reduction in, the number of individuals making up the populations or species of flora and fauna, in particular endangered, threatened, migratory or endemic species.
1. The Parties shall give appropriate publicity to the establishment of specially protected areas, their boundaries, applicable regulations, and to the designation of protected species, their habitats and applicable regulations.
2. The Parties shall endeavour to inform the public of the interest and value of specially protected areas and species, and of the scientific knowledge which may be gained from the point of view of nature conservation and other points of view. Such information should have an appropriate place in education programmes. The Parties shall also endeavour to promote the participation of their public and their conservation organizations in measures that are necessary for the protection of the areas and species concerned, including environmental impact assessments.Tagged terms: public participation
1. The Parties shall encourage and develop scientific and technical research relating to the aims of this Protocol. They shall also encourage and develop research into the sustainable use of specially protected areas and the management of protected species.
2. The Parties shall consult, when necessary, among themselves and with competent international organizations with a view to identifying, planning and undertaking scientific and technical research and monitoring programmes necessary for the identification and monitoring of protected areas and species and assessing the effectiveness of measures taken to implement management and recovery plans.Tagged terms: international cooperation
3. The Parties shall exchange, directly or through the Centre, scientific and technical information concerning current and planned research and monitoring programmes and the results thereof. They shall, to the fullest extent possible, coordinate their research and monitoring programmes, and endeavour jointly to define or standardize their procedures.Tagged terms: international cooperation
1. The Parties shall, directly or with the assistance of the Centre or international organizations concerned, establish cooperation programmes to coordinate the establishment, conservation, planning and management of specially protected areas, as well as the selection, management and conservation of protected species. There shall be regular exchanges of information concerning the characteristics of protected areas and species, the experience acquired and the problems encountered.
1. The Parties shall cooperate, directly or with the assistance of the Centre or the international organizations concerned, in formulating, financing and implementing programmes of mutual assistance and assistance to developing countries that express a need for it with a view to implementing this Protocol.
2. These programmes shall include public environmental education, the training of scientific, technical and management personnel, scientific research, the acquisition,utilization, design and development of appropriate equipment, and transfer of technology on advantageous terms to be agreed among the Parties concerned.
1. The Organization shall be responsible for coordinating the implementation of this Protocol. For this purpose, it shall receive the support of the Centre, to which it may entrust the following functions:
(g) cooperating with regional and international governmental and non-governmental organizations concerned with the protection of areas and species, provided that the specificity of each organization and the need to avoid the duplication of activities are respected;
1. The ordinary meetings of the Parties to this Protocol shall be held in conjunction with the ordinary meetings of the Contracting Parties to the Convention held pursuant to Article 18 of the Convention. The Parties may also hold extraordinary meetings in conformity with that Article.
(c) considering the efficacy of the measures adopted for the management and protection of areas and species, and examining the need for other measures, in particular in the form of Annexes and amendments to this Protocol or to its Annexes;
a) The conservation of the natural heritage is the basic aim that must characterize a SPAMI. The pursuit of other aims such as the conservation of the cultural heritage, and the promotion of scientific research, education, participation, collaboration, is highly desirable in SPAMIs and constitutes a factor in favour of a site being included on the List, to the extent in which it remains compatible with the aims of conservation.
b) No limit is imposed on the total number of areas included in the List or on the number of areas any individual Party can propose for inscription. Nevertheless, the Parties agree that sites will be selected on a scientific basis and included in the List according to their qualities; they will have therefore to fulfil the requirements set out by the Protocol and the present criteria.
c) The listed SPAMI and their geographical distribution will have to be representative of the Mediterranean region and its biodiversity. To this end the List will have to represent the highest number possible of types of habitats and ecosystems.
d) The SPAMIs will have to constitute the core of a network aiming at the effective conservation of the Mediterranean heritage. To attain this objective, the Parties will develop their cooperation on bilateral and multilateral bases in the field of conservation and management of natural sites and notably through the establishment of transboundary SPAMIs.
e) The sites included in the SPAMI List are intended to have a value of example and model for the protection of the natural heritage of the region. To this end, the Parties ensure that sites included in the List are provided with adequate legal status, protection measures and management methods and means.
1. To be eligible for inclusion in the SPAMI List, an area must fulfil at least one of the general criteria set in Article 8 paragraph 2 of the Protocol. Several of these general criteria can in certain cases be fulfilled by the same area, and such a circumstance cannot but strengthen the case for the inclusion of the area in the List.
b) Natural representativenessThe area has highly representative ecological processes, or community or habitat types or other natural characteristics. Representativeness is the degree to which an area represents a habitat type, ecological process, biological community, physiographic feature or other natural characteristic.
f) Cultural representativenessThe area has a high representative value with respect to the cultural heritage, due to the existence of environmentally sound traditional activities integrated with nature which support the well-being of local populations.
3. To be included in the SPAMI List, an area having scientific, educational or aesthetic interest must, respectively, present a particular value for research in the field of natural sciences or for activities of environmental education or awareness or contain outstanding natural features, landscapes or seascapes.
4. Besides the fundamental criteria specified in article 8, paragraph 2, of the Protocol, a certain number of other characteristics and factors should be considered as favourable for the inclusion of the site in the List. These include:
2. To be included in the SPAMI List, an area situated in a zone already delimited over which a Party exercises sovereignty or jurisdiction must have a protected status recognized by the Party concerned.
3. In the case of areas situated, partly or wholly, on the high sea or in a zone where the limits of national sovereignty or jurisdiction have not yet been defined, the legal status, the management plan, the applicable measures and the other elements provided for in Article 9, paragraph 3, of the Protocol will be provided by the neighbouring Parties concerned in the proposal for inclusion in the SPAMI List.
1. Conservation and management objectives must be clearly defined in the texts relating to each site, and will constitute the basis for assessment of the adequacy of the adopted measures and the effectiveness of their implementation at the revisions of the SPAMI List.
2. Protection, planning and management measures applicable to each area must be adequate for the achievement of the conservation and management objectives set for the site in the short and long term, and take in particular into account the threats upon it.
3. Protection, planning and management measures must be based on an adequate knowledge of the elements of the natural environment and of socio-economic and cultural factors that characterize each area. In case of shortcomings in basic knowledge, an area proposed for inclusion in the SPAMI List must have a programme for the collection of the unavailable data and information.
4. The competence and responsibility with regard to administration and implementation of conservation measures for areas proposed for inclusion in the SPAMI List must be clearly defined in the texts governing each area.
c) the regulation of any activity or act likely to harm or disturb the species, or that might endanger the conservation status of the ecosystems or species or might impair the natural, cultural or aesthetic characteristics of the area.
6. To be included in the SPAMI List, a protected area must have a management body, endowed with sufficient powers as well as means and human resources to prevent and/or control activities likely to be contrary to the aims of the protected area.
7. To be included in the SPAMI List an area will have to be endowed with a management plan. The main rules of this management plan are to be laid down as from the time of inclusion and implemented immediately. A detailed management plan must be presented within three years of the time of inclusion. Failure to respect this obligation entails the removal of the site from the List.
8. To be included in the SPAMI List, an area will have to be endowed with a monitoring programme. This programme should include the identification and monitoring of a certain number of significant parameters for the area in question, in order to allow the assessment of the state and evolution of the area, as well as the effectiveness of protection and management measures implemented, so that they may be adapted if need be. To this end further necessary studies are to be commissioned.
PHAEOPHYTA Cystoseira amentacea (including var. stricta and var. spicata)Cystoseira mediterraneaCystoseira sedoidesCystoseira spinosa (including C. adriatica)Cystoseira zosteroides Laminaria rodriguezii
MOLLUSCA Ranella olearia (= Argobuccinum olearium = A. giganteum)Charonia lampas (= Ch. rubicunda = Ch. nodifera)Charonia tritonis (= Ch. seguenziae)Dendropoma petraeumErosaria spurcaGibbula nivosaLithophaga lithophagaLuria lurida (= Cypraea lurida)Mitra zonataPatella ferrugineaPatella nigraPholas dactylusPinna nobilisPinna rudis (= P. pernula)Schilderia achatideaTonna galeaZonaria pyrum
PISCES Acipenser naccariiAcipenser sturioAphanius fasciatusAphanius iberusCetorhinus maximusCarcharodon carchariasHippocampus ramulosusHippocampus hippocampusHuso husoLethenteron zanandreaiMobula mobularPomatoschistus canestriniiPomatoschistus tortoneseiValencia hispanicaValencia letourneuxi
AVES Pandion haliaetusCalonectris diomedeaFalco eleonoraeHydrobates pelagicusLarus audouiniiNumenius tenuirostrisPhalacrocorax aristotelisPhalacrocorax pygmaeusPelecanus onocrotalusPelecanus crispusPhoenicopterus ruberPuffinus yelkouanSterna albifronsSterna bengalensisSterna sandvicensis
MAMMALIA Balaenoptera acutorostrataBalaenoptera borealisBalaenoptera physalusDelphinus delphisEubalaena glacialisGlobicephala melasGrampus griseusKogia simusMegaptera novaeangliaeMesoplodon densirostrisMonachus monachusOrcinus orcaPhocoena phocoenaPhyseter macrocephalusPseudorca crassidensStenella coeruleoalbaSteno bredanensisTursiops truncatusZiphius cavirostris